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See also: and
U+51B0, 冰
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51B0

[U+51AF]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51B1]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
冰-red.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 15, +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 戈一水 (IME), four-corner 32130, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 131, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1612
  • Dae Jaweon: page 294, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 295, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+51B0

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Vulgar character
冰-bronze-warring.svg 冰-seal.svg 冰-vulgar.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pŋrɯŋ, *ŋrɯŋ): semantic + phonetic (OC *pŋrɯŋ, *ŋrɯŋ). The above vulgar character in Shuowen Jiezi is .

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-p(w)am (to freeze; snow) (provisionally reconstructed). Compare Proto-Tani *pam (snow), Japhug jpɣom (to freeze), tɤjpɣom (ice) (STEDT; Zhang, Jacques, and Lai, 2019). Cognate with (OC *rɯŋ, “ice”) and possibly (OC *ŋrɯŋ, “to congeal”) (STEDT; Baxter and Sagart, 2014). STEDT also includes (OC *pʰaːŋ, “heavy (snowfall)”) and (OC *qraŋ, “snowflake”) in its Chinese comparandum.

Alternatively, this may be related to Khmer ប្រឹង (preṅa, to harden; to solidify)[1], from [script needed] (reṅa, to dry up), although the meanings are difficult to reconcile (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /piŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /piŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /piŋ²¹/
Jinan /piŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /piŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /piŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /piŋ²¹/
Xining /piə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /piŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /pĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /piŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /pin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /pin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /pin⁵⁵/
Kunming /pĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /pin³¹/
Hefei /pin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /piəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /piŋ¹³/
Hohhot /pĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /piŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /pin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /pin³³/
Wenzhou /peŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /piʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /pɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /pin³³/
Xiangtan /pin³³/
Gan Nanchang /pin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /pen⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /pen²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /peŋ⁵³/
Nanning /peŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /piŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /piŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /piŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pain⁵⁴/
/peiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /piã³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔbeŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (133)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/pɨŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/pieŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/piŋ/
Li
Rong
/piəŋ/
Wang
Li
/pĭəŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯əŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bīng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bing1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ping ›
Old
Chinese
/*p.rəŋ/ (dialect: *p.r- > *pr-)
English ice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 856
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pŋrɯŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. ice (Classifier: )
    /   ―  bīngkuài  ―  ice cube
  2. ice-cold
  3. to freeze; to ice
  4. (slang, drug) methamphetamine
      ―  liūbīng  ―  to smoke methamphetamine
  5. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to coagulate; to congeal; to freeze; to focus; to concentrate; etc.”).
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. Alternative form of

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 얼음 (eoreum bing))

  1. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (ice).)

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: băng ((bi)(lăng)(thiết))[3][4][5][6]
: Nôm readings: băng[3][5][6][7], phăng[5][8][6][7], bâng[3][5][8], văng[4][5], bưng[5]

  1. Hán tự form of băng (ice).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jenner, P. 2009. Dictionary of Pre-Angkorian Khmer and Dictionary of Angkorian Khmer. Pacific Linguists. [1]
  2. ^ Génibrel (1898).
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Nguyễn (2014).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Nguyễn et al. (2009).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Trần (2004).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Bonet (1899).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hồ (1976).