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U+51DD, 凝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51DD

[U+51DC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51DE]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 15 +14, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈一心大人 (IMPKO), four-corner 37181, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 133, character 45
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 298, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 301, character 18
  • Unihan data for U+51DD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𣲝
𡷪
𠘥

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ŋɯːs
*ŋɯːs, *hŋɯːs, *ŋɯʔ, *ŋɯs
*ŋɯːs, *ŋɯɡ
*ŋrɯːs, *ŋɯʔ, *ŋɯs
*ŋ̊ʰl'ɯ
*ŋɯ
*ŋɯ, *ŋɯɡ
*ŋɯ
*ŋɯʔ
*ŋɯʔ, *ŋɯɡ
*ŋrɯŋ, *ŋrɯŋs

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gêng - literary;
  • gîn - vernacular.
Note:
  • ngêng5 - literary;
  • geng5 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (31) (31)
Final () (133) (133)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie 𩜁
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨŋ/ /ŋɨŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋɨŋ/ /ŋɨŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋieŋ/ /ŋieŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋiŋ/ /ŋiŋH/
Li
Rong
/ŋiəŋ/ /ŋiəŋH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭəŋ/ /ŋĭəŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯əŋ/ /ŋi̯əŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yíng yìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
níng
Middle
Chinese
‹ nging ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ](r)əŋ/ (< uvular?)
English freeze, coagulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 14902 14903
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋrɯŋ/ /*ŋrɯŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to coagulate; to congeal; to freeze
  2. to focus; to concentrate
  3. (Teochew) cold; (of weather) chilly
    [Teochew]  ―  ngang5 si2 [Peng'im]  ―  very cold

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“cold”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 冷凊
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian) 寒人
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. congeal

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eung) (hangeul , revised eung, McCune-Reischauer ŭng, Yale ung)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngưng, ngừng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.