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U+51DD, 凝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51DD

[U+51DC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51DE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
凝-red.png

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 15, +14, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈一心大人 (IMPKO), four-corner 37181, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 133, character 45
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1720
  • Dae Jaweon: page 298, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 301, character 18
  • Unihan data for U+51DD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp.
alternative forms
𣲝
𡷪
𠘥

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋrɯŋ, *ŋrɯŋs): semantic (ice) + phonetic (OC *ŋɯ)

Etymology[edit]

Possibly related to (OC *p.rəŋ, “ice”) (Baxter & Sagart, 2014); if so, also related to (OC *[r]əŋ ~ p.rəŋ, “ice”) and from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-p(w)am (to freeze; snow) (provisionally reconstructed) (STEDT); other comparanda are (OC *pʰˁaŋ) "heavy snowfall", and (OC *ʔraŋ) "sleet, snowflake".

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: king4 - colloquial ("to coagulate").
Note: kên4 - "ice".
Note:
  • ngìng - literary;
  • ngĭk - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gêng - literary;
    • gîn/kiân - vernacular.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: ngêng5 / nging5 / geng5 / gêng5 / ngang5
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: ngêng / ngîng / kṳ̂ng / kêng / ngâng
      • Sinological IPA (key): /ŋeŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋiŋ⁵⁵/, /kɯŋ⁵⁵/, /keŋ⁵⁵/, /ŋaŋ⁵⁵/
    Note:
    • ngêng5/nging5 - literary (nging5 - Chaoyang);
    • geng5/gêng5 - vernacular ("to coagulate") (geng5 - Chaozhou, Shantou; gêng5 - Jieyang);
    • ngang5 - vernacular ("cold").
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /niŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /niŋ²⁴/ ~固
    /niŋ⁵³/ 肉湯~了
    Tianjin /niŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ȵiŋ⁴²/
    /iŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /niŋ⁴²/
    /iŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /niŋ⁴²/
    /iŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /niŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ȵiə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /niŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵĩn⁵³/
    /lĩn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ȵiŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nin²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵin³¹/
    Guiyang /nin²¹/
    Kunming /nĩ³¹/
    Nanjing /lin²⁴/
    Hefei /lin⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /niəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /nĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ȵin¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵin²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵaŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /niʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /ȵin¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian /kʰen¹¹/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ²¹/
    Nanning /neŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /jiŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /giŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋiŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋi²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋeŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋeŋ³¹/
    /xeŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (31) (31)
    Final () (133) (133)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () III III
    Fanqie 𩜁
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨŋ/ /ŋɨŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋɨŋ/ /ŋɨŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋieŋ/ /ŋieŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋiŋ/ /ŋiŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiəŋ/ /ŋiəŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭəŋ/ /ŋĭəŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯əŋ/ /ŋi̯əŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yíng yìng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jing4 jing6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    níng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nging ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ](r)əŋ/ (< uvular?)
    English freeze, coagulate

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 14902 14903
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋrɯŋ/ /*ŋrɯŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to coagulate; to congeal; to freeze
    2. to focus; to concentrate (attention)
    3. to stop; to be still
    4. slow; sluggish
    5. deep; gorgeous
    6. (Teochew) cold
      [Teochew]  ―  ngang5 si2 [Peng'im]  ―  very cold
    7. (Hakka) ice

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. congeal

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eum (eung))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: ngưng, ngừng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.