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U+6B7B, 死
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B7B

[U+6B7A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B7C]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

(radical 78 +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一弓心 (MNP), four-corner 10212, composition or ⿱匕)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 578, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 970, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1380, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6B7B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𣦸
𣦹
𠒁
𠑾
𦭀

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu bamboo and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
死-oracle.svg 死-bronze.svg 死-silk.svg 死-seal.svg 死-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *səj.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sei2 - vernacular;
  • si2 - literary (rare).
Note:
  • sí - vernacular;
  • sú/sír - literary.
Note:
  • 2xi - vernacular;
  • 2sr - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (17)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sˠiɪX/
Pan
Wuyun
/sᵚiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/siɪX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sjiX/
Li
Rong
/sjiX/
Wang
Li
/siX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/siX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ sijX ›
Old
Chinese
/*sijʔ/
English die (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12006
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljiʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to die; death; dead
    已經 [Cantonese, trad.]
    已经 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 loeng5 nin4 cin4 ji5 ging1 sei2 zo2. [Jyutping]
    He already died two years ago.
    高校學生食堂老鼠 [MSC, trad.]
    高校学生食堂老鼠 [MSC, simp.]
    Gāoxiào xuéshēng shítáng chī chū lǎoshǔ. [Pinyin]
    A dead mouse was found in college cafeteria food.
  2. inactive
    /   ―  jié  ―  encased knot
    /   ―    ―  (of a computer system) to crash
    垃圾  ―  Lù bèi lājī dǔ le.  ―  The road is blocked by trash.
  3. (only in compounds) deadly; fatal; killing
      ―  xíng  ―  capital punishment
    /   ―  zhàn  ―  deadly battle
  4. (colloquial) very; bloody; totally
  5. (offensive) damned; damn
  6. (slang, offensive) to disappear; to go
  7. (Cantonese) persistently; stubbornly
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Keoi5 sei2 dou1 m4 hang2 gong2. [Jyutping]
    He is persistently not willing to say it.
    三十 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    Ne1 fan6 gung1 keoi5 zou6 sei2 saam1 sap6 nin4. [Jyutping]
    He has been stubbornly doing this job for thirty years.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The adjective ("dead, inactive, etc.") can not be used as a predicative adjective. The sentence *這隻狗死 generally does not mean "This dog is dead". For the meaning "is dead", usually the verb 死 in the perfect aspect ("to have died") is used instead:
    /   ―  Zhè zhī gǒu le.  ―  This dog has died.
  • The verb ("to die") lacks a present meaning and denotes either past (in perfect aspect) or future (not in perfect aspect) events. It can not be modified by the progressive aspect marker 正在 (zhèngzài) or (zhe).
      ―    ―  "will not die", immortal
    /   ―  méi   ―  "did not die", alive

Synonyms[edit]

  • (to die): 過身过身 (guòshēn), (Cantonese slang) (gwaa1), (Cantonese slang) (deng1)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. death
  2. to die

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Appears to be a conflation of Middle Chinese (sijX) (compare modern Mandarin reading ) with an Old Japanese root that happened to have a similar pronunciation to the Middle Chinese and was probably cognate with 去る (saru, to go, to go away).

In kanji compounds, this would be considered as on'yomi; on its own, this could be considered as either on'yomi or kun'yomi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

(hiragana , rōmaji shi)

  1. death
    ハリー・ポッターと () () (ほう)
    Harī Pottā to Shi no Hihō
    Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
    • 2014 May 2, “テツモスのだいしんかん [Tethmos High Priest]”, in ニクスへの旅 [Journey into Nyx] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
       () (あっ) (せい)である。 (ほか) (あっ) (せい) (どう) (よう)に、それは (てい) (こう)されなければならない。」
      Shi wa assei de aru. Hoka no assei to dōyō ni, sore wa teikō sarenakerebanara nai.”
      “Death is tyranny. Like all tyranny, it must be opposed.”
    • 2014 September 26, “ラクシャーサのあた [Rakshasa Deathdealer]”, in タルキール覇王譚 [The Khans of Tarkir Epic] (in Japanese), Wizards of the Coast:
       () (われ) ()たし、 (つよ)くする。 () (なんじ) ()へと (かえ)す。」
      Shi wa ware o mitashi, tsuyokusuru. Shi wa nanji o mu heto kaesu.”
      “Death fills me and makes me strong. You, death will reduce to nothing.”
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

する (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

  1. to die
    Considered somewhat more archaic or formal than 死ぬ (shinu).
Conjugation[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
し(に)
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem form) of verb 死ぬ (shinu, to die).[1][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana しに, rōmaji shini)

  1. death, dying
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana しに, rōmaji shini-)

  1. bloody, stupid, goddamn
    Used as a negative or pejorative intensifier.
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  4. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(sa)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: sa, McCune-Reischauer: sa, Yale: sa)
    • Name (hangeul): 죽을 (revised: jugeul, McCune-Reischauer: chugŭl, Yale: cwuk.ul)
  1. die
  2. death

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tử, long)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]