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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
死-bw.png

(radical 78 +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一弓心 (MNP), four-corner 10212, composition or ⿱匕)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 578, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 970, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1380, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6B7B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𣦸
𣦹
𠒁
𠑾
𦭀

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
死-oracle.svg 死-bronze.svg 死-silk.svg 死-bigseal.svg 死-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *səj.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (17)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɣiɪX/
Pan
Wuyun
/sɯiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/siɪX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sjiX/
Li
Rong
/sjiX/
Wang
Li
/siX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/siX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ sijX ›
Old
Chinese
/*sijʔ/
English die (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12006
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljiʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to die, death, dead.
    / 饿  ―  è  ―  to die of starvation
    已經 / 已经 [Cantonese]  ―  Keoi5 loeng5 nin4 cin4 ji5 ging1 sei2 zo2. [Jyutping]  ―  He already died two years ago.
    高校學生食堂老鼠 [MSC, trad.]
    高校学生食堂老鼠 [MSC, simp.]
    Gāoxiào xuéshēng shítáng chī chū lǎoshǔ. [Pinyin]
    A dead mouse was found in college cafeteria food.
  2. inactive
    /   ―  jié  ―  encased knot
    /   ―    ―  (of a computer system) to crash
    垃圾  ―  Lù bèi lājī dǔ le.  ―  The road is blocked by wastes.
  3. (only in compounds) deadly; fatal; killing
      ―  xíng  ―  capital punishment
    /   ―  zhàn  ―  deadly battle
  4. (colloquial) very; bloody; totally
    •   ―  Wǒ lèi le.  ―  I'm dead tired.
    • 鸭子  ―  yāzǐ zuǐ yìng.  ―  He is pretty stubborn.
    • [Cantonese]  ―  Cou4 sei2! [Jyutping]  ―  You're being really noisy!
  5. (offensive) damned; damn
  6. (slang, offensive) to disappear; to go

Usage notes[edit]

  • The adjective 死 ("dead, inactive, etc.") can not be used as a predicative adjective. The sentence *這隻狗死 generally does not mean "This dog is dead". For the meaning "is dead", usually the verb 死 in the perfect aspect ("to have died") is used instead:
    /   ―  Zhè zhī gǒu le.  ―  This dog has died.
  • The verb 死 ("to die") lacks a present meaning and denotes either past (in perfect aspect) or future (not in perfect aspect) events. It can not be modified by the progressive aspect marker 正在 or .
      ―    ―  "will not die", immortal
      ―    ―  "did not die", alive

Synonyms[edit]

  • (to die): 過身过身 (guòshēn), (Cantonese slang) (gwaa1), (Cantonese slang) (deng1)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. death
  2. to die

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on'yomi

Appears to be a conflation of Middle Chinese ‎(sijX) (compare modern Mandarin reading ) with an Old Japanese root that happened to have a similar pronunciation to the Middle Chinese and was probably cognate with 去る ‎(saru, to go, to go away).

In kanji compounds, this would be considered as on'yomi; on its own, this could be considered as either on'yomi or kun'yomi.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. death
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

する ‎(hiragana する, romaji shi suru)

  1. to die
    Considered somewhat more archaic or formal than 死ぬ ‎(shinu).
Conjugation[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
しに
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, stem form) of verb 死ぬ ‎(shinu, to die).[1][4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しに, romaji shini)

  1. death, dying
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana しに, romaji shini-)

  1. bloody, stupid, goddamn
    Used as a negative or pejorative intensifier.
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  4. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sa) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer sa, Yale sa)

  1. die
  2. death

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tử, long)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]