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U+6B7B, 死
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B7B

[U+6B7A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B7C]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

(radical 78, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 一弓心 (MNP), four-corner 10212, composition or ⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 578, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 970, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1380, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+6B7B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𣦸
𣦹
𠒁 ancient
𠑾 ancient
𦭀 ancient

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
死-oracle.svg 死-bronze.svg 死-silk.svg 死-seal.svg 死-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *səj.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sei2 - vernacular;
  • si2 - literary (rare).
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • sí - vernacular;
    • sú/sír - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 2xi - vernacular;
    • 2sr - literary.
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (17)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /sˠiɪX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sᵚiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /siɪX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sjiX/
    Li
    Rong
    /sjiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /siX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /siX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sijX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sijʔ/
    English die (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12006
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljiʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to die; death; dead
    2. inactive
      • /   ―  jié  ―  encased knot
      • /   ―    ―  (of a computer system) to crash
      • 垃圾  ―  Lù bèi lājī dǔ le.  ―  The road is blocked by trash.
    3. (only in compounds) deadly; fatal; killing
      •   ―  xíng  ―  capital punishment
      • /   ―  zhàn  ―  deadly battle
    4. (colloquial or Teochew) very; bloody; totally
      •   ―  Wǒ lèi le.  ―  I'm dead tired.
      • [Cantonese]  ―  Cou4 sei2! [Jyutping]  ―  Keep it down! (lit. You're being really noisy!)
      • / [Teochew]  ―  ruah8 si2 [Peng'im]  ―  really hot
    5. (offensive) damned; damn
    6. (slang, offensive) to disappear; to go; (as in "where the hell did ... go")
    7. (Cantonese) persistently; stubbornly
    8. (Cantonese) awful

    Usage notes[edit]

    • The adjective ("dead, inactive, etc.") cannot be used as a predicative adjective. The sentence *這隻狗死 generally does not mean "This dog is dead". For the meaning "is dead", usually the verb in the perfect aspect ("to have died") is used instead:
      /   ―  Zhè zhī gǒu le.  ―  This dog has died.
    • The verb ("to die") lacks a present meaning and denotes either past (in perfect aspect) or future (not in perfect aspect) events. It cannot be modified by the progressive aspect marker 正在 (zhèngzài) or (zhe).
        ―    ―  "will not die", immortal
      /   ―  méi   ―  "did not die", alive

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (to die):
    edit

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (shi)
    • Korean: (, sa)
    • Vietnamese: tử ()

    Others:

    See also[edit]

    • (intensifier) (guǐ)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    /si//ɕi/

    Appears to be a conflation of Middle Chinese (MC sˠiɪX), with an Old Japanese root that happened to have a similar pronunciation to the Middle Chinese and was probably cognate with 去る (saru, to go, to go away). Compare modern Mandarin ().

    In kanji compounds, this would be considered as 音読み (on'yomi, Sino-Japanese reading); but on its own, this could be considered as either on'yomi or 訓読み (kun'yomi, native Japanese reading).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (shi

    1. death
      ()(いた)(やまい)
      Shi ni Itaru Yamai
      The Sickness Unto Death
      Antonym: (sei)
    2. (law, historical) one of the five punishments under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, the methods used are (, strangling) and (zan, decapitation)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (shi

    1. death, to die
    2. dead, unfunctional
    3. life-or-death situation
    4. dangerous, life-threatening
    5. (baseball) out

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 죽을 (jugeul sa))

    1. die
    2. death

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]


    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “From Proto-Japonic *si?”

    Appears to be a conflation of an s- root cognate with 去る (saru, to go, go away) and Middle Chinese (MC sˠiɪX).

    Noun[edit]

    (si) (kana )

    1. death
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, preface to poem 897: melancholic poem by Yamanoue no Okura)
        帛公略說曰:「伏思自勵,以斯長生。生可貪也,畏也。...」
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (shi)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tử, long)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]