죽다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 죽다〮 (Yale: cwùktá). The suppletive honorific 돌아가시다 (doragasida) is first attested in the Memoirs of Lady Hyegyeong, 1805.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕuk̚t͈a̠]
    • (file)
  • Phonetic hangul: []
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?jukda
Revised Romanization (translit.)?jugda
McCune–Reischauer?chukta
Yale Romanization?cwukta

Verb[edit]

Korean verb set
Base 죽다 (jukda)
Causative죽이다 (jugida)

죽다 (jukda) (infinitive 죽어, sequential 죽으니) (intransitive)

  1. to die (to stop living)
    이미 죽은지 오래다.
    Geu-neun imi jugeunji oraeda.
    He is already long dead.
    (literally, “It is already long since he died.”)
    Synonyms: (honorific) 돌아가시다 (doragasida), (euphemistic, now North Korean) 없다 (eopda)
    Antonyms: (to live) 살다 (salda), (to be born) 태어나다 (taeeonada)
  2. to die away, to fade
    여드름 많이 죽었네.
    Yeodeureum mani jugeonne.
    Your pimples have died out a lot.
  3. (of a machine) to die, to stop working
  4. (of a personal characteristic, energy, etc.) to fade away, to disappear
  5. (hyperbolic) to be unbearable, to be irresistible [from 20th c.]
    너무 귀여워서 죽겠다neomu gwiyeowoseo jukgetdaIt's so cute, I'm going to die.

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

(formal Sino-Korean equivalents):

See also[edit]

(death of a king or emperor):


Middle Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /t͡sùk.tá/, [t͡sùk̚.t͈á]

Verb[edit]

죽다 (cwùktá) (infinitive 주거〮, sequential 주그〮니〮)

  1. (intransitive) to die
    Antonym: 사〯다〮 (sǎdá, to live)
    • 14th century?, “滿殿春 (Manjeonchun)”, in 樂章歌詞 (Akjang gasa), published 16th century:
      어름 우희 댓 닙 자리 보와 님과 나와 어러 주글만뎌ᇰ (져ᇰ) 준 오ᄂᆞᆳ 밤 더듸 새오시라 더듸 새오시라
      elum wuh-uy tay-s nip cali pwowoa nim-kwa na-Gwa ele cwukul mantyeng CYENG cwun wonol-s pam tetuy sayGwosila tetuy sayGwosila
      Even if my love and I should freeze to death, having set up [only] a bed of bamboo leaves upon the ice, may this night when we make love pass slowly by, pass slowly by.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Unlike Modern Korean, the Middle Korean verb did not have a suppletive honorific (the verb was even used for the death of the king, which would be scandalous in Modern Korean), though 업스〮시다〮 (èpsúsìtá, to become absent) was also used euphemistically.

Conjugation[edit]

Selected conjugations of 죽다〮 (cwùktá), Accentual class L
Note that the majority of the forms below are unattested for any one verb. Orthography and pitch accent assignment can vary between sources.
Selected plain sentence-final forms
Declarative Interrogative Modulated
declarative
Polar question Wh-word question Second-person subject
Past 죽다〮 (cwùktá)
주그〮니라〮 (cwùkúnìlá)
주근〮가〮 (cwùkúnká)
주그〮녀〮 (cwùkúnyé)
주근〮고〮 (cwùkúnkwó)
주그〮뇨〮 (cwùkúnyó)
주근〮다〮 (cwùkúntá) 주구〮라〮 (cwùkwúlá)
Present 죽ᄂᆞ다〮 (cwùknòtá)
죽ᄂᆞ니〮라〮 (cwùknònílá)
죽ᄂᆞᆫ가〮 (cwùknònká)
죽ᄂᆞ녀〮 (cwùknònyé)
죽ᄂᆞᆫ고〮 (cwùknònkwó)
죽ᄂᆞ뇨〮 (cwùknònyó)
죽ᄂᆞᆫ다〮 (cwùknòntá) 죽노〮라〮 (cwùknwólá)
Conjectural 주그〮리라〮 (cwùkúlìlá) 주그ᇙ〮가〮 (cwùkúlqká)
주그〮려〮 (cwùkúlyé)
주그ᇙ〮고〮 (cwùkúlqkwó)
주그〮료〮 (cwùkúlyó)
주그ᇙ〮다〮 (cwùkúlqtá) 주구〮리라〮 (cwùkwúlìlá)
Retrospective/
imperfective
죽더〮라〮 (cwùktélá)
죽더〮니라〮 (cwùkténìlá)
죽던〮가〮 (cwùkténká)
죽더〮녀〮 (cwùktényé)
죽던〮고〮 (cwùkténkwó)
죽더〮뇨〮 (cwùktényó)
죽던〮다〮 (cwùkténtá) 죽다〮라〮 (cwùktálá)
(-ke-) form 죽거다〮 (cwùkkètá)
죽거니〮라〮 (cwùkkènílá)
죽거녀〮 (cwùkkènyé) 죽거뇨〮 (cwùkkènyó) 죽건다〮 (cwùkkèntá) 죽과〮라〮 (cwùkkwálá)
Promissive/Hortative Imperative Exclamatory/Emotive
주구〮마〮 (cwùkwúmá, promissive)
죽져〮 (cwùkcyé, hortative)
주그〮라〮 (cwùkúlá, order)
죽고〮라〮 (cwùkwólá, request)
주근〮뎌〮 (cwùkúntyé), 주글〮쎠〮 (cwùkúlssyé)
죽도〮다〮 (cwùktwótá), 죽돗〮다〮 (cwùktwóstá)
주게〮라〮 (cwùkéylá)
Selected highly deferential sentence-final forms
Past 주그〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkúngìtá)
주그〮니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkúníngìtá)
주그〮니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (cwùkúníngìská) 주그〮니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (cwùkúníngìskwó) no separate forms 주구〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkwúngìtá)
Present 죽ᄂᆞᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùknòngìtá)
죽ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùknòníngìtá)
죽ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (cwùknòníngìská) 죽ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (cwùknòníngìskwó) 죽노〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùknwóngìtá)
Conjectural 주그〮리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkúlíngìtá) 주그〮리〮ᅌᅵᆺ가〮 (cwùkúlíngìská) 주그〮리〮ᅌᅵᆺ고〮 (cwùkúlíngìskwó) 주구〮리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkwúlíngìtá)
Promissive/Hortative Imperative Exclamatory/Emotive
주구〮마〮 (cwùkwúmá, promissive)
죽사〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùksángìtá, hortative)
주그쇼〮셔〮 (cwùkùsyósyé, order)
죽고〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkwóngìtá, request)
죽도〮다〮 (cwùktwótá), 죽돗〮다〮 (cwùktwóstá)
주게〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkéyngìtá)
Selected honorific declarative forms
Past Present Conjectural Retrospective/
imperfective
(-ke-) form
Plain subject-honoring 주그시〮다〮 (cwùkùsítá)
주그시〮니라〮 (cwùkùsínìlá)
주그시〮ᄂᆞ다〮 (cwùkùsínòtá)
주그시〮ᄂᆞ〮니라〮 (cwùkùsínónìlá)
주그시〮리라〮 (cwùkùsílìlá) 죽더〮시다〮 (cwùktésìtá)
죽더〮시〮니라〮 (cwùktésínìlá)
죽거〮시다〮 (cwùkkésìtá)
죽거〮시〮니라〮 (cwùkkésínìlá)
Deferential subject-honoring 주그시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkùsíngìtá)
주그시〮니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkùsíníngìtá)
주그시〮ᄂᆞ〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkùsínóngìtá)
주그시〮ᄂᆞ니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkùsínòníngìtá)
주그시〮리〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkùsílíngìtá) 죽더〮시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùktésíngìtá)
죽더〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùktésìníngìtá)
죽거〮시〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkkésíngìtá)
죽거〮시니〮ᅌᅵ다〮 (cwùkkésìníngìtá)
Selected connective forms
Connective Causative Conditional/situating Contrastive/concessive Purposive/desiderative Infinitive
죽고〮 (cwùkwó)
주그〮며〮 (cwùkúmyé)
죽다가〮 (cwùktàká)
주그〮니〮 (cwùkúní)
죽거ᄂᆞᆯ〮 (cwùkkènól)
주글〮ᄊᆡ〮 (cwùkúlssóy)
죽관〮ᄃᆡ〮 (cwùkkwántóy)
주그〮면〮 (cwùkúmyén)
죽거든〮 (cwùkkètún)
주근〮대〮 (cwùkúntáy)
죽건댄〮 (cwùkkèntáyn)

주그〮나〮 (cwùkúná)
주구〮ᄃᆡ〮 (cwùkwútóy)
주근〮ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (cwùkúntól)
죽건마ᄅᆞᆫ〮 (cwùkkènmàlón)
주구〮려〮 (cwùkwúlyé)
죽고〮져〮 (cwùkwócyé, desires one's own action)
죽과〮뎌〮 (cwùkkwátyé, desires other's action)
주거〮 (cwùké)
Adnominal/gerundive forms
Past Present Conjectural
Unmodulated non-honorific 주근〮 (cwùkún) 죽ᄂᆞᆫ (cwùknòn) 주그ᇙ〮 (cwùkúlq)
Modulated non-honorific 주군〮 (cwùkwún) 죽논〮 (cwùknwón) 주구ᇙ〮 (cwùkwúlq)
Unmodulated subject-honoring 주그신〮 (cwùkùsín) 주그시〮ᄂᆞᆫ〮 (cwùkùsínón) 주그시ᇙ〮 (cwùkùsílq)
Substantive forms
Plain Subject-honoring
주굼〮 (cwùkwúm)
주그샴〮 (cwùkùsyám)

Descendants[edit]

  • Korean: 죽다 (jukda)