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See also: , , and
U+98DF, 食
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98DF

[U+98DE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98E0]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
食-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (U+2FB7) (Kangxi radical)
  • (when used as a left Chinese radical) 𩙿

Han character[edit]

(radical 184, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #184, .

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
食-oracle.svg 食-bronze.svg 食-bronze-spring.svg 食-bronze-warring.svg 食-silk.svg 食-slip.svg 食-seal.svg 食-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ): phonetic  (OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠊊

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sĭk - literary;
  • siĕk - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • si̍t - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou), literary (Quanzhou, Taiwan);
    • se̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (27)
    Final () (134)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʑiek̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʑik̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡ʑiək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡ʑĭək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zyik ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə-lək/
    English eat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11477
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljɯɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Cantonese, Hakka) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Hakka) to drink
    3. (Cantonese, Hakka) to smoke
      / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
    4. (Cantonese, chess, etc.) to capture
    5. meal; food
    6. edible
    7. Alternative form of (shí, “to eat away; to erode”).
    8. Alternative form of (shí, “eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)”).
    Usage notes[edit]
    • Cantonese and Hakka regularly use to mean “to eat”, whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
    • Mandarin uses () for “to smoke”.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms 𠊊

    The *s- causative of Etymology 1.

    Pronunciation[edit]



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ziH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-m-lək-s/
    English feed (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (, “to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat”).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    Kwok (2018) reconstructs Proto-Southern Min *tsiaʔ⁸ and tentatively reconstructs Proto-Min *dziak (in Norman's system).

    While often considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it is unlikely to be related to etymology 1 (Norman, 1991; Klöter, 2005; Fuehrer and Yang, 2014). Schuessler (2007) suggests it derives from (OC *zewɢ, “to chew”) (probably based on Norman's unpublished manuscripts).

    Pronunciation[edit]



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Coastal Min) to eat; to have a meal
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-pn̄g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to eat rice; to have a meal
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h pá bōe? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Coastal Min) to drink
      [Teochew]  ―  ziah85 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
      燒酒 / 烧酒 [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h sio-chiú [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to drink rice wine
    3. (Coastal Min) to take in; to inhale
      [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-hun [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to inhale smoke; to smoke
    4. (Singapore Hokkien) to embezzle (money)
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-lui [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to embezzle money

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Indonesian: ciak
    • Thai: เจี๊ยะ (jía)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    From Proto-Min *jiap or *jiat (to eat). While sometimes considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it may be from (OC *ɢrab, “to carry food to workers in the field”) (Norman, 1991; Schuessler, 2007).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Inland Min) to eat

    Etymology 5[edit]

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jɨH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ieH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iəH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭəH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11476
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lɯɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in names.
      /   ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to eat
    2. a meal

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unbound apophonic form (uke).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うか) (uka

    1. food
    2. grain

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うけ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form (uka).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うけ) (uke

    1. food

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with (ke).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ke

    1. food
      ()()(くに)
      mi ke tsu kuni
      the land of foods

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょく
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʑɨk̚).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しょく) (shoku

    1. a meal
    2. foodstuff
    3. an eclipse
    Derived terms[edit]

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʑɨk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 식〯 (Yale: sik) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bap sik))
    (eumhun 먹을 (meogeul sik))

    1. Hanja form? of (meal; food).
    2. (literary) Hanja form? of (to eat).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 먹이 (meogi sa))

    1. Hanja form? of (feed).
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MCH).

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 사람 이름 (saram ireum i))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]


    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thực ((thừa)(lực)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], tự[3]
    : Nôm readings: thực[2][4][6], xực[1]

    1. Hán tự form of thực (food; meal).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]


    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]