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See also: , , and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
食-bw.png
Stroke order
食-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
食-oracle.svg 食-bronze.svg 食-bigseal.svg 食-seal.svg

Shuowen Jiezi: Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Han character[edit]

(radical 184 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
Nanning /sek̚²²/
Hong Kong /sik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡siaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sia³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (27)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑɨk̚/ /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/ /d͡ʑiək̚/ /ʑɨk̚/ /ʑik̚/ /d͡ʑĭək̚/ /ʑiek̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shí ‹ zyik › /*mə-lək/ eat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11477 0 /*ɦljɯɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
    中國人筷子 [Cantonese, trad.]
    中国人筷子 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Zung1 gwok3 jan4 hai6 zaa1 faai3 zi2 sik6 faan6 ge3. [Jyutping]
    Chinese people use chopsticks to eat with.
    星期日朋友一齊晚飯 [Cantonese, trad.]
    星期日朋友一齐晚饭 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Soeng6 sing1 kei4 jat6 ngo5 tung4 di1 pang4 jau5 jat1 cai4 sik6 maan5 faan6. [Jyutping]
    Last Sunday, I ate dinner together with my friends.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Have you eaten yet?
  2. (Hakka, Min) to drink
    [Teochew]  ―  ziah8 tê5 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
    燒酒 / 烧酒 [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h sio-chiú [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to drink rice wine
    竹葉青 [Hakka, trad.]
    竹叶青 [Hakka, simp.]
    From: 食酒歌
    Sṳ̍t-chiú oi sṳ̍t chuk-ya̍p-chhiâng. [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]
    If you're drink wine, you have to drink Zhuyeqing (three-year-old Shaoxing wine).
  3. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to smoke
    / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
  4. meal; food
  5. edible
  6. ( (shí))
    1. to eat away; to erode
    2. eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)
Usage notes[edit]
  • Cantonese, Hakka, and Min regularly uses to mean "to eat", whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
  • Hokkien and Hakka also regularly uses to mean "to drink".
  • Mandarin uses () for "to drink" and () for "to smoke".

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The *s- causative of Etymology 1. See for more.

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
Nanning /sek̚²²/
Hong Kong /sik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡siaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sia³³/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ziH › /*s-m-lək-s/ feed (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. ( ()) to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
Nanning /sek̚²²/
Hong Kong /sik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡siaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sia³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (36)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/jɨH/ /iH/ /iəH/ /jɨH/ /jɨH/ /jĭəH/ /ieH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11476 0 /*lɯɡs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in names.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to eat
  2. a meal

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

This character has a simplified form of when used to compose larger characters, as seen in . This character is not simplified when used as itself. It can also appear in an alternative form as in .

Etymology 1[edit]

Unbound apophonic form uke.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うか, romaji uka)

  1. food
  2. grain

Etymology 2[edit]

uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form ‎(uka).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うけ, romaji uke)

  1. food

Etymology 3[edit]

Cognate with ‎(ke).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ke)

  1. food

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. food

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しょく, romaji shoku)

  1. a meal
  2. foodstuff
  3. an eclipse

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sik)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sik, McCune-Reischauer: sik, Yale: sik)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thực, tự)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.