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See also: , , and
U+98DF, 食
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98DF

[U+98DE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98E0]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
9 strokes
Stroke order
食-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical) 𩙿

Han character[edit]

(radical 184, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition𠆢)

  1. Kangxi radical #184, .

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠊊
Min Nan vernacular
Min Bei vernacular

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
食-oracle.svg 食-bronze.svg 食-bronze-spring.svg 食-bronze-warring.svg 食-silk.svg 食-slip.svg 食-seal.svg 食-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ljɯɡs
*lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ
*ɦljɯɡ
*hljɯɡ
*l̥ʰɯɡ

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ): phonetic  (OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • iè - vernacular;
  • sī - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siăh*siĕh - vernacular;
    • sĭk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chia̍h, chiā - vernacular;
    • si̍t - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou), literary (Quanzhou, Taiwan);
    • se̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (27)
    Final () (134)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʑiek̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʑik̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡ʑiək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡ʑĭək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zyik ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə-lək/
    English eat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11477
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljɯɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Hakka, Min) to drink
      [Teochew]  ―  ziah85 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
    3. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to smoke
      / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
    4. (Cantonese, chess, etc.) to capture
    5. meal; food
    6. edible
    7. Alternative form of (shí, “to eat away; to erode”).
    8. Alternative form of (shí, “eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)”).
    Usage notes[edit]
    • Cantonese, Hakka, and Min regularly uses to mean “to eat”, whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
    • Mandarin uses () for “to smoke”.
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of (“to eat”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Taishan
    Doumen
    Kaiping
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Dialectal synonyms of (“to drink”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    The *s- causative of Etymology 1.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ziH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-m-lək-s/
    English feed (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat”).

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jɨH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ieH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iəH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭəH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11476
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lɯɡs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in names.
      /   ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to eat
    2. a meal

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Unbound apophonic form uke.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うか, rōmaji uka)

    1. food
    2. grain

    Etymology 2[edit]

    uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form (uka).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うけ, rōmaji uke)

    1. food

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Cognate with (ke).

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ke)

    1. food
       () () (くに)
      mi ke tsu kuni
      the land of foods

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. food

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しょく, rōmaji shoku)

    1. a meal
    2. foodstuff
    3. an eclipse

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (sik)

    1. food

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thực, tự)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.