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See also:
U+5475, 呵
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5475

[U+5474]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5476]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 口一弓口 (RMNR), four-corner 61020, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 183, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3459
  • Dae Jaweon: page 402, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 598, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5475

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːlʔ
*kaːl
*kaːl, *ɡaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ, *kaːnʔ
*kʰaːl, *kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːl
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːls, *ɡaːl
*qʰaːl, *qʰaːls
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːls, *ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːls
*qaːl
*qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl, *kʰraːls
*qaːl
娿 *qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl
*kʰraːlʔ
*qʰraːlʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qʰaːl, *qʰaːls): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ŏ̤ - literary;
  • hŏ̤ - vernacular (sound of laughter).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ho - literary;
    • o - 阿 is used in the Mainland.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ha/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰˤaj/
    English scold

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 7453
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːl/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “to berate; to scold”).
    2. to shout; to cry out
    3. to cherish; to treasure; to protect
    4. (onomatopoeia) Sound of laughing.
    5. Exclamation particle for expressing surprise.
    6. (dialectal) to smoke (tobacco)

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • hĕ̤ - vernacular;
    • hŏ̤ - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /haH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 7456
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaːls/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to expel breath; to slowly breathe out

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in transcriptions.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 4[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (, “to bend over”).

    Pronunciation 5[edit]


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (“exclamation particle”).

    Pronunciation 6[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (“modal particle”).

    Pronunciation 7[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (dialectal) to cheat; to deceive

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. scold, disapprove

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ga) (hangeul , revised ga, McCune-Reischauer ka)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (ha, , hả, , khá, khà)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.