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U+6CB3, 河
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CB3

[U+6CB2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CB4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水一弓口 (EMNR), four-corner 31120, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 613, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1006, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1582, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6CB3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢀎

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
河-oracle.svg 河-bronze.svg 河-seal.svg 河-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaːl): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Originally particularly used for the Yellow River, with other rivers known as (OC *qʰʷljilʔ). Later extended generally as a word for rivers in northern China but the influence of (OC *kroːŋ, “Yangtze River; river in southern China”) has meant that modern usage tends to favor it for shorter rivers and creeks except in historical cases.

External etymology uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Jinjiang:
    • ô - vernacular;
    • hô - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
    Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
    Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xə⁴²/
    Qingdao /xə⁴²/
    /xuə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xɤ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
    Xining /xu²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xə⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
    Chengdu /xo³¹/
    Guiyang /xo²¹/
    Kunming /xo³¹/
    Nanjing /xo²⁴/
    Hefei /xʊ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xɤ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xɔ¹³/
    /xei¹³/
    Hohhot /xɤ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
    Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦo²¹³/
    Wenzhou /vu³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xo⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xo¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦo¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ho²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /ho¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ho¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔ²¹/
    Nanning /hɔ²¹/
    Hong Kong /hɔ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ho³⁵/
    /o³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /o⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ho⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ho4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ha ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[C.ɡ]ˁaj/
    English river

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7459
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Yellow River, Huang He
      Synonym: 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé)
      1. (Chinese mythology) Hebo; the god of the Yellow River
      2. (Chinese mythology) Yellow River's Map; the plan of the Yellow River (mystic diagram said to have been supernaturally revealed)
    2. (by extension) river, especially a smaller river, creek, or stream, as distinguished from and (Classifier: m)
        ―  liú  ―  river
        ―  xiǎo   ―  small river, stream
    3. streamside; riverside
    4. (figuratively) Milky Way
    5. (chiefly Cantonese) Short for 河粉 (héfěn).
      乾炒牛 / 干炒牛 [Cantonese]  ―  gon1 caau2 ngau4 ho4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  beef chow fun
    6. A surname​.: He; Ho

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Wutunhua: xhe

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. river

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かわ
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    かわ1
    [noun] river, stream, brook
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    Affix[edit]

    () (ka

    1. river

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ホー
    Grade: 5
    Irregular

    From Chinese . The pronunciation is most similar to Cantonese /hɔː²¹/, although most Japanese mahjong terminology is taken from early 20th Century Mandarin.

    Noun[edit]

    (ホー) (

    1. (mahjong) river: a player's discard pile

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑ).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (mul ha))

    1. Hanja form? of (river).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: ((hàn)(ca)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: [1][2][4][6]

    1. Hán tự form of (river).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]