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U+6CB3, 河
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CB3

[U+6CB2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CB4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水一弓口 (EMNR), four-corner 31120, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 613, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1006, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1582, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6CB3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
河-oracle.svg 河-bronze.svg 河-seal.svg 河-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaːl): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Originally particularly used for the Yellow River, with other rivers known as (OC *qʰʷljilʔ). Later extended generally as a word for rivers in northern China but the influence of (OC *kroːŋ, “Yangtze River; river in southern China”) has meant that modern usage tends to favor it for shorter rivers and creeks except in historical cases.

External etymology uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed:

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/
Jinan /xə⁴²/
Qingdao /xə⁴²/
/xuə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xɤ⁴²/
Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
Xining /xu²⁴/
Yinchuan /xə⁵³/
Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
Chengdu /xo³¹/
Guiyang /xo²¹/
Kunming /xo³¹/
Nanjing /xo²⁴/
Hefei /xʊ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /xɔ¹³/
/xei¹³/
Hohhot /xɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Wenzhou /vu³¹/
Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xo⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xo¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦo¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ho²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /ho¹¹/
Taoyuan /ho¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔ²¹/
Nanning /hɔ²¹/
Hong Kong /hɔ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ho³⁵/
/o³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /o⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ho⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦa/
Li
Rong
/ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.ɡ]ˁaj/
English river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7459
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡaːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Yellow River, Huang He
    Synonym: 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé)
    1. (Chinese mythology) Hebo; the god of the Yellow River
    2. (Chinese mythology) Yellow River's Map; the plan of the Yellow River (mystic diagram said to have been supernaturally revealed)
  2. (by extension) river, especially a smaller river, creek, or stream, as distinguished from and
      ―  liú  ―  river
      ―  xiǎo   ―  small river, stream
  3. streamside; riverside
  4. (figurative) Milky Way
  5. (chiefly Cantonese) Short for 河粉 (héfěn).
    乾炒牛 / 干炒牛 [Cantonese]  ―  gon1 caau2 ngau4 ho4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  beef chow fun
  6. A surname​: He; Ho

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. river

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
かわ
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
かわ1
[noun] river, stream, brook
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

Affix[edit]

() (ka

  1. river

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
ホー
Grade: 5
Irregular

From Chinese . The pronunciation is most similar to Cantonese /hɔː²¹/, although most Japanese mahjong terminology is taken from early 20th Century Mandarin.

Noun[edit]

(ホー) (

  1. (mahjong) river: a player's discard pile

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑ). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: ha) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (mul ha))

  1. Hanja form? of (river).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: ((hàn)(ca)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: [1][2][4][6]

  1. Hán tự form of (river).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]