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U+6CB3, 河
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CB3

[U+6CB2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CB4]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水一弓口 (EMNR), four-corner 31120, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 613, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17245
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1006, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1582, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6CB3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
河-oracle.svg 河-bronze.svg 河-bigseal.svg 河-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːlʔ
*kaːl
*kaːl, *ɡaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːl
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ
*kaːlʔ, *kaːnʔ
*kʰaːl, *kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːl
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ
*kʰaːlʔ, *kʰaːls
*kʰaːls, *ɡaːl
*qʰaːl, *qʰaːls
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːl
*qʰaːls, *ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl, *ɡaːlʔ
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːl
*ɡaːls
*qaːl
*qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl, *kʰraːls
*qaːl
娿 *qaːl, *qaːlʔ
*qaːl
*kʰraːlʔ
*qʰraːlʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaːl): semantic  + phonetic (OC *kʰaːlʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Originally particularly used for the Yellow River, with other rivers known as (OC *qʰʷljilʔ). Later extended generally as a word for rivers in northern China but the influence of (OC *kroːŋ, “Yangtze River; river in southern China”) has meant that modern usage tends to favor it for shorter rivers and creeks except in historical cases.

External etymology uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed:

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xɤ³⁵/
Harbin /xɤ²⁴/
Tianjin /xɤ⁴⁵/
Jinan /xə⁴²/
Qingdao /xə⁴²/
/xuə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xɤ⁴²/
Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
Xining /xu²⁴/
Yinchuan /xə⁵³/
Lanzhou /xə⁵³/
Ürümqi /xɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
Chengdu /xo³¹/
Guiyang /xo²¹/
Kunming /xo³¹/
Nanjing /xo²⁴/
Hefei /xʊ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xɤ¹¹/
Pingyao /xɔ¹³/
/xei¹³/
Hohhot /xɤ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /vu²³/
Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Wenzhou /vu³¹/
Hui Shexian /xo⁴⁴/
Tunxi /xo⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /xo¹³/
Xiangtan /ɦo¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ho²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /ho¹¹/
Taoyuan /ho¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔ²¹/
Nanning /hɔ²¹/
Hong Kong /hɔ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ho³⁵/
/o³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /o⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ɔ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ho⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ho³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦa/
Li
Rong
/ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.ɡ]ˤaj/
English river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7459
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡaːl/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Yellow River
    1. (Chinese mythology) Hebo; the god of the Yellow River
    2. (Chinese mythology) Yellow River's Map; the plan of the Yellow River (mystic diagram said to have been supernaturally revealed)
  2. (by extension) river, especially a smaller river, creek, or stream, as distinguished from and
      ―  liú  ―  river
      ―  xiǎo  ―  small river, stream
  3. streamside; riverside
  4. (figuratively) Milky Way
  5. A surname​: He; Ho

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. river

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ha) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ha, Yale ha)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Noun[edit]

(, nghiệp, xương)

  1. river