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U+6C5F, 江
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5F

[U+6C5E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C60]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水一 (EM), four-corner 31110, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 606, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17140
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1551, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C5F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kroːŋ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology 1[edit]

Yangtze River”.

Borrowed from a substrate Mon-Khmer language as Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river, valley); compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ruŋ ~ ruuŋ ~ ruəŋ (river) > Proto-Vietic *k-roːŋ (river) (Vietnamese sông), Mon ကြုၚ် (krɜŋ, small river, creek).

Similar sound: (OC *kroːŋʔ, *ɡloːŋs, “harbour”).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕiaŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕiɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiaŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiaŋ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕiã̠/
Nanjing /t͡ɕiaŋ³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕiɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕiɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kɑ̃⁵³/
/t͡ɕiã⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiɑ̃⁵⁵/
/kɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕia³¹/ ~淮
/ka³¹/ 姓~
Tunxi /kau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕian³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕian³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /koŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /køyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
/kiaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (9)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠʌŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚɔŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɔŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kɔŋ/
Wang
Li
/kɔŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɔŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiāng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁroŋ/
English (Yangzi) river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3995
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Yangtze River
  2. (by extension) river
  3. A surname​: Jiang (mainland China), Chiang (Taiwan), Kong (Hong Kong)
Usage notes[edit]

The original Chinese word for “moving water source” such as "brook", "river", etc. was (shuǐ), literally “water”. The original glyph had three strokes showing water in the middle flowing from land embankments to its sides.

With the sophistication of culture, complex layers of words and subtle differences in meanings evolved. In time, the moving water bodies were differentiated based on their sizes and moving water speeds.

The proper name () was used as a word for rivers that are bigger than brooks and its original bearer distinguished as the 黃河黄河 (Huáng Hé, “Yellow River”) which is an 'older' water source with a smaller volume of moving water. Similarly, was originally the name of the Yangtze River a larger moving water source and then became the standard bearer for this differentiated term. It was then applied broadly as a generic word for rivers of this size category.

Nowadays, in modern Standard Mandarin, are usually thought of as the larger rivers that are usually in southern China, are usually rivers with comparatively lesser volume or that are artificial and are usually found in northern China (and may be considered culturally 'older'), () are creeks, (liú) are brooks and (shuǐ) are streams (but can also be medium-sized tributary rivers like the Han River (漢水汉水 (Hànshuǐ)). There are many other exceptions to this general pattern owing to historical reasons and also the linguistic incompatibility between the different terms in Modern English, Modern Mandarin and dialectical Chinese.

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“cowpea”).
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. creek
  2. inlet
  3. bay

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi

/je//e/

From Old Japanese. The ye pronunciation gradually dropped out in Early Middle Japanese, persisting in some dialects and specific terms. For instance, see Wikipedia-logo-v2.svg Yebisu on Wikipedia.Wikipedia

This term was so representative of the ye reading that it lent its shape to the hentaigana 𛀁 (ye).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji e)

  1. inlet, bay
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) (general term for a large body of water)
    1. sea
    2. large river
    3. lake
Usage notes[edit]

Although (e) was sometimes used generically for a large body of water, it was most often used to indicate the portion of that body of water that extended inland.[2]

Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji E)

  1. a surname

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: S
kan’on

/kau//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠʌŋ).

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana かう)

  1. (archaic) large river

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana こう, rōmaji , historical hiragana かう)

  1. short for 長江 (Chōkō): the Yangtze River
  2. old name for 琵琶湖 (Biwa-ko): Lake Biwa
  3. a surname
  4. a unisex given name
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Various nanori readings.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana ごう, rōmaji )

  1. a surname
  2. a unisex given name

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun (gang gang))

  1. river

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(giang, giăng, nhăng, gianh)

  1. (only in compounds) river