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See also: 🈳
U+7A7A, 空
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A

[U+7A79]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7A7B]
Emoji u1f233.svg
🈳 U+1F233, 🈳
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A
🈲
[U+1F232]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈴
[U+1F234]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 116, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十金一 (JCM), four-corner 30101, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 863, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1289, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2719, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7A7A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𠀝
𫞹
𢦉

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
空-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs): semantic  (cave, hole) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)uŋ (hole; orifice; inner part). (OC *kʰloːŋʔ, “hole”) is probably the endoactive derivation of (OC *kʰoːŋ, “hollow; empty”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan ཁུང (khung, hole), Jingpho ladi hku (nostril), Chepang घाङ्‌ (gʰaŋ, hole), Burmese အခေါင် (a.hkaung, hollow place; cavity), Naxi ko³³ (cave; hole; pit) (STEDT).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • kĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • kŭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khang - vernacular;
    • khong - literary.
    Note:
    • kang1 - vernacular;
    • kong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: kong1 / kong4
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /kʰʊŋ³³/, /kʰʊŋ⁴⁵/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /kʰən³³/, /kʰən⁴⁵/

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kʰuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kʰəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kʰuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kʰũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kʰoŋ/
    Nanjing /kʰoŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kʰəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kʰuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kʰan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kʰən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kʰaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰøyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁴/
    /kɔŋ³³/ ~闲
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰoŋ³³/
    /kʰaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xoŋ²³/
    /xaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁoŋ/
    English hollow, empty; hole

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4034
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. empty; hollow; void
      箱子 / 箱子  ―  Zhè xiāngzi shì kōng de.  ―  This box is empty.
      盒子 [MSC, trad.]
      盒子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài hézi lǐ yǒu xiē kōng píng. [Pinyin]
      There are some empty bottles in the box.
    2. exhausted; emptied
    3. open; spacious; vast
    4. quiet and still; secluded
    5. lacking substance; fictitious; fabricated
      /   ―  kōnghuà  ―  empty talk
    6. (Min Dong) hungry
    7. air; sky; atmosphere
      /   ―  kōng  ―  air; atmosphere
        ―  tiānkōng  ―  the sky
        ―  hángkōng  ―  aviation
      調 /   ―  kōngtiáo  ―  air conditioning
    8. space; outer space; cosmos; universe
        ―  tàikōng  ―  outer space
      /   ―  kōngjiān  ―  space
    9. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness; void of the world of the senses
    10. (Taoism) emptiness and quiet
    11. in vain; for nothing
    12. only (left, remain, etc.)
    13. to exhaust
    14. to miss the target
    15. (Min Nan) hole; cavity
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (hungry):
    • (hole):

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note: hung3 - rare.
    Note:
    • káe̤ng - vernacular;
    • kóng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khòng - literary (including “zero”);
    • khàng - vernacular.
    Note: kang3 - “zero”.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kòng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4045
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to make empty; to impoverish
    2. to leave empty; to leave blank
    3. vacant; unoccupied; available
      房間 / 房间  ―  Yǒu kòng fángjiān ma?  ―  Is there any vacant room?
      位子 [MSC, trad.]
      位子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè ge wèizǐ kòng zhe ma? [Pinyin]
      Is this seat available?
    4. spare time; free time; leisure
      今天  ―  Wǒ jīntiān yǒu kòng.  ―  I'm free today.
      下午 / 下午  ―  Nǐ xiàwǔ yǒu kòng ma?  ―  Are you free this afternoon?
      現在醫生 / 现在医生  ―  Xiànzài yīshēng méi kòng.  ―  The doctor is not available now.
    5. empty space; room
      進來 [MSC, trad.]
      进来 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài jǐ ge rén jìnlái xíng ma? Chē lǐ hái yǒu kòng ma? [Pinyin]
      Can you fit in another person? Is there room in the car?
    6. (of time) gap; interval; break
      Synonyms: 間隙间隙 (jiànxì), 間隔间隔 (jiàngé)
    7. chance; opportunity
    8. (Min Nan) zero
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (zero):
    • (spare time):
    edit
    • (empty): (Cantonese)

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (kǒng, “hole; cave; mouth”).

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (くう) ()
    • Korean: (, gong)
    • Vietnamese: không ()

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. sky
    2. empty, hollow, bare, void, deserted
    Readings[edit]
    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Kojiki c. 712 CE.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (そら) (sora

    1. the sky
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (the sky): (ten)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    から
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with (から) (kara, shell).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (から) (kara

    1. empty
      (から)(ばこ)
      karabako
      empty box
    2. ineffectual
      (から)()
      karaburi
      in vain
    3. false
      (から)(げん)()
      karagenki
      bravado
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (くう) (

    1. empty air
    2. meaninglessness
    3. (Buddhism) shunya (Śūnyatā): emptiness, vacuity, awareness, openness, thusness
    4. (Buddhism) void: one of the 五大 (godai, literally great five); also known as (sora), of particular importance as the highest of the five elements
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Kanji in this term
    うろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うろ) (uro

    1. cavity, hole

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うつお
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /utuho/: /utupo//utuɸo//utuwo//utuo/. See also (utsubo).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うつお) (utsuo (historical kana うつほ)

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うつぼ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Similar etymology to (utsuo). As /h/ gradually changed from [p] → [ɸ] → [w] → [Ø], the phoneme was voiced to [b] in order to maintain it.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (うつぼ) (utsubo

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bil gong))

    1. Hanja form? of (empty; void).
    2. Hanja form? of (sky; air).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana すら, romaji sura)

    1. (literary) the sky; the heavens

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: không ((khô)(công)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: không[1][2][3][4][5][6], khung[1][2][3], khỏng[3][7][6], khong[1], cung[3], khống[4]

    1. Hán tự form of không (empty; void).
    2. Hán tự form of không (air; sky).
    3. Nôm form of không (zero; none).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]