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See also: 🈳
U+7A7A, 空
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A

[U+7A79]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7A7B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 116, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十金一 (JCM), four-corner 30101, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 863, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1289, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2719, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7A7A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠀝
𫞹

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
空-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs): semantic  (cave, hole) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • kĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • kŭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khang - vernacular;
    • khong - literary.
    Note:
    • kang1 - vernacular;
    • kong1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kʰuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kʰəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kʰuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kʰũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kʰoŋ/
    Nanjing /kʰoŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kʰəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kʰuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kʰan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kʰən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kʰaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰøyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁴/
    /kɔŋ³³/ ~闲
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰoŋ³³/
    /kʰaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xoŋ²³/
    /xaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁoŋ/
    English hollow, empty; hole

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4034
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. empty; hollow; void
      箱子 / 箱子  ―  Zhè xiāngzi shì kōng de.  ―  This box is empty.
    2. exhausted; emptied
    3. open; spacious; vast
    4. quiet and still; secluded
    5. lacking substance; fictitious; fabricated
      /   ―  kōnghuà  ―  empty talk
    6. (Min Dong) hungry
    7. air; sky; atmosphere
      /   ―  kōng  ―  air; atmosphere
        ―  tiānkōng  ―  the sky
      •   ―  hángkōng  ―  aviation
      • 調 /   ―  kōngtiáo  ―  air conditioning
    8. space; outer space; cosmos; universe
        ―  tàikōng  ―  outer space
    9. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness; void of the world of the senses
    10. (Taoism) emptiness and quiet
    11. in vain; for nothing
    12. only (left, remain, etc.)
    13. to exhaust
    14. to miss the target
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (hungry):
    Dialectal synonyms of (“hungry”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 飢餓
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou 肚餓
    Hong Kong 肚餓
    Taishan 肚飢
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 肚飢
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 肚飢肚枵
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 肚飢
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 肚屎枵肚枵
    Dongshi (Dabu) 肚枵肚屎枵肚飢
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 肚枵肚屎枵
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 屎肚枵
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Dong Fuzhou dated
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Chaozhou 肚困
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng 肚䐬 intensified

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note: hung3 - rare.
    Note:
    • káe̤ng - vernacular;
    • kóng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khòng - literary;
    • khàng - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kòng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4045
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to make empty; to impoverish
    2. to leave empty; to leave blank
    3. vacant; unoccupied; available
    4. spare time; free time; leisure
      今天  ―  Wǒ jīntiān yǒu kòng.  ―  I'm free today.
    5. empty space; room
    6. gap; chance; opportunity
    7. (Min Nan) zero

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (kǒng, “hole; cave; mouth”).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. sky
    2. empty, hollow, bare, void, deserted
    Readings[edit]
    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    そら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Kojiki c. 712 CE.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana そら, rōmaji sora)

    1. the sky
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (the sky): (てん, ​ten)
    Related terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    から
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with  (から) (kara, shell).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana から, rōmaji kara)

    1. empty
       (から) (ばこ) (karabako, empty box)
    2. ineffectual
       (から) () (karaburi, in vain)
    3. false
       (から) (げん) () (karagenki, bravado)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    くう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana くう, rōmaji )

    1. empty air
    2. meaninglessness
    3. (Buddhism) shunya (Śūnyatā): emptiness, vacuity, awareness, openness, thusness
    4. (Buddhism) void: one of the 五大 (godai; lit. "great five); also known as (そら, sora), of particular importance as the highest of the five elements

    Etymology 4[edit]

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Kanji in this term
    うろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うろ, rōmaji uro)

    1. cavity, hole

    Etymology 5[edit]

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Kanji in this term
    うつお
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /utuho/: utupo → utuɸo → utuwo → utuo. See also (utsubo).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うつお, rōmaji utsuo, historical hiragana うつほ)

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うつぼ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Similar etymology to (utsuo). As /h/ gradually changed from [p] → [ɸ] → [w] → [Ø], the phoneme was voiced to [b] in order to maintain it.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana うつぼ, rōmaji utsubo)

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gong)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: gong, McCune–Reischauer: kong, Yale: kong)
      • Name (hangeul): (revised: bil)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (không, khỏng, cung, khung)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.