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U+7A7A, 空
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A

[U+7A79]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7A7B]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
空-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 116 +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十金一 (JCM), four-corner 30101, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 863, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1289, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2719, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7A7A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
空-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs): semantic (cave, hole) + phonetic (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • kĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • kŭng - literary.
Note:
  • khang - vernacular;
  • khong - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kʰuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kʰuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kʰəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kʰuŋ²¹/
Xining /kʰuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kʰũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /kʰoŋ/
Nanjing /kʰoŋ³¹/
Hefei /kʰəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kʰuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kʰan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kʰən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kʰaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰøyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁴/
/kɔŋ³³/ ~闲
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰoŋ³³/
/kʰaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xoŋ²³/
/xaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (29)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰəwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kʰuŋ/
Wang
Li
/kʰuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
kōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤoŋ/
English hollow, empty; hole

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4034
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰoːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. empty; hollow; void
    箱子 / 箱子  ―  Zhè xiāngzi shì kōng de.  ―  This box is empty.
  2. exhausted; emptied
  3. open; spacious; vast
  4. quiet and still; secluded
  5. lacking substance; fictitious; fabricated
    /   ―  kōnghuà  ―  empty talk
  6. (Min Dong) hungry
  7. air; sky; atmosphere
    /   ―  kōng  ―  air; atmosphere
      ―  tiānkōng  ―  the sky
    •   ―  hángkōng  ―  aviation
    • 調 /   ―  kōngtiáo  ―  air conditioning
  8. space; outer space; cosmos; universe
      ―  tàikōng  ―  outer space
  9. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness; void of the world of the senses
  10. (Taoism) emptiness and quiet
  11. in vain; for nothing
  12. only (left, remain, etc.)
  13. to exhaust
  14. to miss the target
Synonyms[edit]
  • (hungry):
Dialectal synonyms of (“hungry”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 飢餓
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Harbin
Shenyang
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou 肚餓
Hong Kong 肚餓
Taishan 肚飢
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 肚飢
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Dong Fuzhou dated
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Chaozhou 肚困
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng 肚䐬 intensified

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Note:
  • káe̤ng - vernacular;
  • kóng - literary.
Note:
  • khòng - literary;
  • khàng - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (29)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰəwŋH/
Li
Rong
/kʰuŋH/
Wang
Li
/kʰuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kòng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4045
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰoːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to make empty; to impoverish
  2. to leave empty; to leave blank
  3. vacant; unoccupied; available
  4. spare time; free time; leisure
    今天  ―  Wǒ jīntiān yǒu kòng.  ―  I'm free today.
  5. empty space; room
  6. gap; chance; opportunity
  7. (Min Nan) zero

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (kǒng, “hole; cave; mouth”).

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. sky
  2. empty, hollow, bare, void, deserted
  3. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness, vacuity, awareness, openness, thusness
  4. (Japanese Buddhism) "void": One of the 五大 (godai; lit. "great five); also known as (そら, sora) and is of particular importance as the highest of the five elements. It also represents those things that are beyond one's everyday experiences, particularly those things composed of pure energy.
    1. (Bodily) represents one's spirit, thought, and creative energy. It represents one's ability to think and to communicate, as well one's creativity. It can also be associated with power, creativity, spontaneity, and inventiveness.
    2. (Martial arts) a philosophy; when exercised, the power of the Void allows one to connect to the quintessential creative energy of the world. A martial arts practitioner, who is properly attuned into the 'Void', have greater spatial awareness of their surroundings, the presences of others, and to act without thinking and without using their physical senses, via this mindstate of inner peace.
Readings[edit]
Compounds[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana そら, romaji sora)

  1. the sky
Synonyms[edit]
  • (the sky): (てん, ​ten)
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana から, romaji kara)

  1. empty
  2. ineffectual
    振り
  3. false
    元気
Derived terms[edit]
  • カラオケ (​karaoke)

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くう, romaji )

  1. empty air
  2. shunya
  3. meaninglessness

Etymology 4[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うろ, romaji uro)

  1. cavity, hole

Etymology 5[edit]

/utuho/: utupo → utuɸo → utuwo → utuo. See also (utsubo).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うつお, romaji utsuo, historical hiragana うつほ)

  1. Alternative form of うろ

Etymology 6[edit]

Similar etymology to (utsuo). As /h/ gradually changed from [p] → [ɸ] → [w] → [Ø], the phoneme was voiced to [b] in order to maintain it.

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うつぼ, romaji utsubo)

  1. Alternative form of うろ

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: gong, McCune-Reischauer: kong, Yale: kong)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: bil)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(không, khỏng, cung, khung)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.