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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 一弓心 (MNP) or X一弓心 (XMNP), four-corner 17331, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 384, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10552
  • Dae Jaweon: page 714, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2289, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+6050

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /kʰuŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /kʰuŋ¹³/
Jinan /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /kʰəŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /kʰuŋ⁵³/
Xining /kʰuə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /kʰũn⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁴²/
Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵³/
Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁴²/
Kunming /kʰoŋ⁵³/
Nanjing /kʰoŋ²¹²/
Hefei /kʰəŋ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /kʰuŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /kʰoŋ⁵³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰyɔ³⁵/
/kʰoŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /kʰan³¹/ ~怖
/t͡ɕʰin³¹/ ~怕
Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ⁴¹/
Xiangtan /kʰən⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /kʰiuŋ³¹/
Taoyuan /kʰioŋ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ³⁵/
Nanning /kʰuŋ³⁵/
Hong Kong /huŋ³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰiɔŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰyŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰioŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xɔŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (29) (29)
Final () (7) (7)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰɨoŋX/ /kʰɨoŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰioŋX/ /kʰioŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰioŋX/ /kʰioŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰuawŋX/ /kʰuawŋH/
Li
Rong
/kʰioŋX/ /kʰioŋH/
Wang
Li
/kʰĭwoŋX/ /kʰĭwoŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰi̯woŋX/ /kʰi̯woŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiǒng qiòng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
kǒng
Middle
Chinese
‹ khjowngX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰ(r)oŋʔ/
English fear

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4071 4072
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰoŋʔ/ /*kʰoŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to fear; to be afraid
  2. fearful; apprehensive

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. fear; be afraid
  2. threaten
  3. probably

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gong) (hangeul , revised gong, McCune-Reischauer kong, Yale kong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(khủng, thứ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.