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See also:
U+5FC3, 心
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FC3

[U+5FC2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FC4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
心-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)
  • (sometimes when used as a bottom Chinese radical, like )

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 心 (P), four-corner 33000, composition丿丶)

  1. Kangxi radical #61, .

Usage notes[edit]

When written as a bottom radical, it is similar to but is distinguished by the second stroke from the left being longer, passing under the third stroke – this is an important composition detail.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 375, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10295
  • Dae Jaweon: page 700, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2267, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5FC3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
心-bronze-shang.svg 心-oracle.svg 心-bronze.svg 心-silk.svg 心-seal.svg 心-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯms
*sʰlɯms
*slɯm
*slɯm
*slɯmʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a heart, now highly stylized.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s(j)am-s.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕin⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕin²¹/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /siə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sin²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ²¹/
Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕĩ/
Nanjing /sin³¹/
Hefei /ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /sin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sin³³/
Xiangtan /sin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sim⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sim²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sim³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sim/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sim/
Li
Rong
/siəm/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sim ›
Old
Chinese
/*səm/
English heart

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13801
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slɯm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. heart (Classifier: m)
  2. mind
  3. thought; idea
  4. intention
  5. center; core

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (しん) (shin)
  • Korean: (, sim)
  • Vietnamese: tâm ()

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. heart (organ)
  2. heart (mind, spirit)
  3. center, middle

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
こころ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨ko2ko2ro2 → */kəkərə//kokoro/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kəkərə. Cognate with Okinawan (kukuru).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana こころ, rōmaji kokoro)

  1. mind, heart, spirit, soul; thoughts, ideas
     (こころ) (そこ)から
    kokoro no soko kara
    from the bottom of one's heart
     (ひと) (こころ) (うば)
    hito no kokoro o ubau
    to steal someone's heart; to captivate someone
    • 2007 March 16, CLAMP, “Chapitreシャピトル.134 ゆいいつそんざい [Chapitre.134 The Only One]”, in ツバサ RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE [Tsubasa: RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE], volume 18 (fiction), Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, pages 31–32:
      ‥‥それでも ()きます 小狼 (シャオラン) (くん) (こころ) () (もど) (ため)
      ‥‥Sore demo ikimasu Shaoran-kun no kokoro o torimodosu tame ni
      ‥‥Even so, I will go on, to get back Xiaolang-kun’s heart
  2. attention, mind, interest
  3. heart, feelings, emotion, emotional state
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3466)[3] text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (かな)しみ ()れば (こと) () ()なへば (こころ) () ()りて (かな)しも [Modern spelling]
      makanashimi nureba koto ni zu sanenaeba kokoro no oro ni norite kanashi mo
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  4. wholeheartedness, sincerity, true heart
  5. sympathy, heart, consideration, generous disposition
  6. meaning, essence; answer (as to a riddle)
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うら
Grade: 2
Irregular

Cognate with (ura, inside).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana うら, rōmaji ura)

  1. inner feelings; heart

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/siːm//simʉ//ɕimʉ//ɕiɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC siɪm).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana しん, rōmaji shin)

  1. heart, mind, core; spirit, vitality; inner strength, marrow
  2. core (as of a fruit); wick; lead (as of a pencil); padding
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in ja), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 마음 (ma-eum sim))

  1. heart, feeling, emotion

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tâm, tim)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.