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See also:
U+5FC3, 心
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FC3

[U+5FC2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FC4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
心-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)
  • (sometimes when used as a bottom Chinese radical, like )

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 心 (P), four-corner 33000, composition丿丶)

  1. Kangxi radical #61, .

Usage notes[edit]

When written as a bottom radical, it is similar to but is distinguished by the second stroke from the left being longer, passing under the third stroke – this is an important composition detail.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 375, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10295
  • Dae Jaweon: page 700, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2267, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5FC3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
心-bronze-shang.svg 心-oracle.svg 心-bronze.svg 心-silk.svg 心-seal.svg 心-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯms
*sʰlɯms
*slɯm
*slɯm
*slɯmʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a heart, now highly stylized.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s(j)am-s.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕin⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕin²¹/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /siə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sin²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ²¹/
Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕĩ/
Nanjing /sin³¹/
Hefei /ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /sin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sin³³/
Xiangtan /sin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sim⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sim²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sim³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sim/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sim/
Li
Rong
/siəm/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sim ›
Old
Chinese
/*səm/
English heart

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13801
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slɯm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. heart (Classifier: m)
  2. mind
  3. thought; idea
  4. intention
  5. center; core

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
こころ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨ko2ko2ro2 → */kəkərə//kokoro/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kəkərə.

Compare Okinawan (kukuru).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana こころ, rōmaji kokoro)

  1. mind, heart, spirit, soul; thoughts, ideas
    • 2007 March 16, CLAMP, “Chapitreシャピトル.134 ゆいいつそんざい [Chapitre.134 The Only One]”, in ツバサ RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE [Tsubasa: RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE], volume 18 (fiction, in Japanese), Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, pages 31–32:
      ‥‥それでも ()きます 小狼 (シャオラン) (くん) (こころ) () (もど) (ため)
      ‥‥Sore demo ikimasu Shaoran-kun no kokoro o torimodosu tame ni
      ‥‥Even so, I will go on, to get back Xiaolang-kun’s heart
     (こころ) (そこ)からkokoro no soko karafrom the bottom of one's heart
     (ひと) (こころ) (うば)hito no kokoro o ubauto steal someone's heart → to captivate someone
  2. attention, mind, interest
  3. heart, feelings, emotion, emotional state
  4. wholeheartedness, sincerity, true heart
  5. sympathy, heart, consideration, generous disposition
  6. a meaning, essence
  7. an answer (for example, to a riddle)
  8. the heart (organ in the body)
    Synonym: 心臓 (shinzō)
  9. the chest
    Synonym: (mune)
  10. the title of a book
    Synonym: 書名 (shomei)
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

する (hiragana こころする, rōmaji kokoro suru)

  1. to caution, be careful
    • c. 951953, Gosen Wakashū (book 16, poem 1138)
       (こころ)して (まれ) ()きつる秋風 (あきかぜ) (やま)おろしにはなさじとぞ (おも)
      kokoro shite mare ni fukitsuru akikaze o yamaoroshi ni wa nasaji to zo omou
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonyms: 気をつかう (ki o tsukau), 気をつける (ki o tsukeru), 注意する (chūi suru)
  2. to feel a certain emotion
Conjugation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana こころ, rōmaji Kokoro)

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うら
Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with (ura, inside) and (ura, inlet).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana うら, rōmaji ura)

  1. heart, inner feelings
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana うら, rōmaji ura-)

  1. prefixed to terms to express a heartfelt feeling
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/sim//simʉ/ → */ɕimʉ//ɕiɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC siɪm).

The Buddhist sense is a translation of Pali and Sanskrit चित्त (citta).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana しん, rōmaji shin)

  1. heart, mind, core
  2. spirit, vitality
  3. inner strength, marrow
  4. the center of something:
    1. the core (for example, of a fruit)
    2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  5. a wick
  6. (Buddhism) citta: the ego or spirit
    Synonyms: 主観 (shukan), 精神 (seishin)
    Antonym: (shiki)
  7. (Buddhism) Short for 心王 (shinnō): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  8. the heart (organ in the body)
  9. lead (as of a pencil)
  10. padding
  11. a companion, fellow
    Synonyms: 友達 (tomodachi), 仲間 (nakama)
  12. the center of focus:
    1. the important part
      Synonym: 主脳 (shunō)
    2. (theater) Alternative spelling of (shin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  13. a basis, foundation
    Synonyms: 基礎 (kiso), 根拠 (konkyo)
Derived terms[edit]

Affix[edit]

(hiragana しん, rōmaji shin)

  1. heart (organ in the body)
  2. heart (mind, spirit)
  3. center, middle

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana しん, rōmaji Shin)

  1. (Chinese astronomy) the Heart constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
    Synonyms: 商星 (Shōsei), 心宿 (Shinshuku), 中子星 (Nakagoboshi)
  2. a male or female given name
  3. a surname

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 마음 (ma-eum sim))

  1. heart, feeling, emotion

Compounds[edit]


Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Japonic *kəkərə.

Noun[edit]

(ko2ko2ro2) (kana こころ)

  1. heart, mind, spirit
  2. emotion, feeling
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3466),[1] text here
      麻可奈思美 奴礼婆許登尓豆 佐祢奈敝波 己許呂乃緒呂尓 能里弖可奈思母
      ma-kanasimi1 nureba ko2to2 ni du sanenape1ba ko2ko2ro2 no2 woro2 ni no2rite kanasi mo
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (kokoro)

Etymology 2[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Noun[edit]

(ko2ko2ri) (kana ここり)

  1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) heart, mind, spirit
  2. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) emotion, feeling
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Cognate with (ura, inside) and (ura, inlet).

Noun[edit]

(ura) (kana うら)

  1. heart, inner feelings
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (ura)

Prefix[edit]

(ura-) (kana うら)

  1. prefixed to terms to express a heartfelt feeling

References[edit]

  1. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tâm, tim)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.