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See also:
U+5FC3, 心
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FC3

[U+5FC2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FC4]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order
心-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (U+2F3C) (Kangxi radical)
  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)
  • (sometimes found as a bottom Chinese radical in characters such as )

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 心 (P), four-corner 33000, composition丿丶)

  1. Kangxi radical #61, .

Usage notes[edit]

When written as a bottom radical, is similar to (fire radical) but is distinguished by the second stroke from the left being longer, passing under the third stroke.

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 375, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31302
  • Dae Jaweon: page 700, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2267, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5FC3

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
心-bronze-shang.svg 心-oracle.svg 心-bronze.svg 心-silk.svg 心-seal.svg 心-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a heart, now highly stylized.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s(j)am-s.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sim1 - Chaozhou;
  • sing1 - Chenghai.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕin⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕin²¹/
    Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹³/
    Qingdao /siə̃²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /sin²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕiẽ²¹/
    Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕĩ/
    Nanjing /sin³¹/
    Hefei /ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /sin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sin³³/
    Xiangtan /sin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /sim⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sim²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
    Nanning /ɬɐm⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sim³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /tim²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (139)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sim/
    Li
    Rong
    /siəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /sĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xīn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*səm/
    English heart

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13801
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*slɯm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. heart (Classifier: m;  c;  mn)
    2. mind
    3. thought; idea
    4. intention
    5. center; core

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しん) (shin)
    • Korean: (, sim)
    • Vietnamese: tâm ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: tim (heart)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こころ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ko2ko2ro2 → */kəkərə//kokoro/

    From Old Japanese (ko2ko2ro2, heart, mind, spirit), from Proto-Japonic *kəkərə.

    Compare Okinawan (kukuru).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こころ) (kokoro

    1. mind, heart, spirit, soul; thoughts, ideas
      • 2007 March 16, CLAMP, “Chapitre(シャピトル).134 (ゆい)(いつ)(そん)(ざい) [Chapitre.134 The Only One]”, in ツバサ RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE [Tsubasa: RESERVoir CHRoNiCLE], volume 18 (fiction), Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN, pages 31–32:
        ‥‥それでも()きます 小狼(シャオラン)(くん)(こころ)()(もど)(ため)
        ‥‥Sore demo ikimasu Shaoran-kun no kokoro o torimodosu tame ni
        ‥‥Even so, I will go on, to get back Xiaolang-kun’s heart
      (こころ)(そこ)からkokoro no soko karafrom the bottom of one's heart
      (ひと)(こころ)(うば)hito no kokoro o ubauto steal someone's heart → to captivate someone
    2. attention, mind, interest
    3. heart, feelings, emotion, emotional state
    4. wholeheartedness, sincerity, true heart
    5. sympathy, heart, consideration, generous disposition
    6. a meaning, essence
    7. an answer (for example, to a riddle)
    8. the heart (organ in the body)
      Synonym: 心臓 (shinzō)
    9. the chest
      Synonym: (mune)
    10. the title of a book
      Synonym: 書名 (shomei)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Verb[edit]

    (こころ)する (kokoro surusuru (stem (こころ) (kokoro shi), past (こころ)した (kokoro shita))

    1. to caution, to be careful
      • c. 951953, Gosen Wakashū (book 16, poem 1138)
        (こころ)して(まれ)()きつる秋風(あきかぜ)(やま)おろしにはなさじとぞ(おも)
        kokoro shite mare ni fukitsuru akikaze o yamaoroshi ni wa nasaji to zo omou
        (please add an English translation of this example)
      Synonyms: 気をつかう (ki o tsukau), 気をつける (ki o tsukeru), 注意する (chūi suru)
    2. to feel a certain emotion
    Conjugation[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (こころ) (Kokoro

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うら
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Old Japanese.

    Cognate with (ura, inside) and (ura, inlet).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Noun[edit]

    (うら) (ura

    1. heart, inner feelings
    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (うら) (ura-

    1. prefixed to terms to express a heartfelt feeling
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しん
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /sim//simʉ/ → */ɕimʉ//ɕiɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪm).

    The Buddhist sense is a translation of Pali and Sanskrit चित्त (citta).

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しん) (shin

    1. heart, mind, core
    2. spirit, vitality
    3. inner strength, marrow
    4. the center of something:
      1. the core (for example, of a fruit)
      2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    5. a wick
    6. (Buddhism) citta: the ego or spirit
      Synonyms: 主観 (shukan), 精神 (seishin)
      Antonym: (shiki)
    7. (Buddhism) Short for 心王 (shinnō): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    8. the heart (organ in the body)
    9. lead (as of a pencil)
    10. padding
    11. a companion, fellow
      Synonyms: 友達 (tomodachi), 仲間 (nakama)
    12. the center of focus:
      1. the important part
        Synonym: 主脳 (shunō)
      2. (theater) Alternative spelling of (shin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    13. a basis, foundation
      Synonyms: 基礎 (kiso), 根拠 (konkyo)

    Affix[edit]

    (しん) (shin

    1. heart (organ in the body)
    2. heart (mind, spirit)
    3. center, middle

    Proper noun[edit]

    (しん) (Shin

    1. (Chinese astronomy) the Heart constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
      Synonyms: 商星 (Shōsei), 心宿 (Shinshuku), 中子星 (Nakagoboshi)
    2. a male or female given name
    3. a surname

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪm). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: sim) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 마음 (ma-eum sim))

    1. Hanja form? of (heart; feeling; emotion).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *kəkərə.

    Noun[edit]

    (ko2ko2ro2) (kana こころ)

    1. heart, mind, spirit
    2. emotion, feeling
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3466),[1] text here
        麻可奈思美 奴礼婆許登尓豆 佐祢奈敝波 己許呂乃緒呂尓 能里弖可奈思母
        ma-kanasimi1 nureba ko2to2 ni du sanenape1ba ko2ko2ro2 no2 woro2 ni no2rite kanasi mo
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (こころ, kokoro)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Noun[edit]

    (ko2ko2ri) (kana ここり)

    1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) heart, mind, spirit
    2. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) emotion, feeling
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Cognate with (ura, inside) and (ura, inlet).

    Noun[edit]

    (ura) (kana うら)

    1. heart, inner feelings
    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (うら, ura)

    Prefix[edit]

    (ura-) (kana うら)

    1. prefixed to terms to express a heartfelt feeling

    References[edit]

    1. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: tâm (()(lâm)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: tâm[1][2][4][6], tấm[3][7][4][6], tim[1][3], tăm[1]

    1. Hán tự form of tâm (heart; feeling).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]