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U+6797, 林
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6797

[U+6796]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6798]
U+F9F4, 林
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9F4

[U+F9F3]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9F5]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木木 (DD), four-corner 44990, composition木)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 516, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14551
  • Dae Jaweon: page 903, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1164, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6797

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
林-oracle.svg 林-bronze.svg 林-seal.svg 林-bigseal.svg

Duplication of (“tree”) to give the idea of multiple trees (compare ), thus a forest.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ram (jungle; forest; country; field) (STEDT). Cognate with (OC *srɯm, “forest”), Mizo ram (forest; country), Karbi ram (jungle).

Or perhaps an area word (Schuessler, 2007), shared with Khmer រាម (riəm, thick bushy jungle that grows along a stream), Old Khmer *rām (inundated forest along a watercourse), Old Khmer sarāma ~ sarāṃ (a tract of stunted vegetation), Mon ရာံ (rèm, copse; patch of woodland).

“Hayashi”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (はやし) (Hayashi).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • nâ - vernacular;
  • lîm - literary (surname).
Note:
  • na5 - vernacular;
  • lim5 - literary (surname).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /lin³⁵/
    Harbin /lin²⁴/
    Tianjin /lin⁴⁵/
    Jinan /liẽ⁴²/
    Qingdao /liə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /lin⁴²/
    Xi'an /liẽ²⁴/
    Xining /liə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /liŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lĩn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /liŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nin²¹³/
    Chengdu /nin³¹/
    Guiyang /nin²¹/
    Kunming /lĩ¹/
    Nanjing /lin²⁴/
    Hefei /lin⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /liəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /liŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /lĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /liŋ²³/
    Suzhou /lin¹³/
    Hangzhou /lin²¹³/
    Wenzhou /leŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /liʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lin⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lin¹³/
    Xiangtan /nin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lin⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /lim¹¹/
    Taoyuan /lim¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /lɐm²¹/
    Nanning /lɐm²¹/
    Hong Kong /lɐm²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim³⁵/
    /na³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /liŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /leiŋ³³/
    /laŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /lim⁵⁵/
    /nã⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /lim³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (139)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /liɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ljem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lim/
    Li
    Rong
    /liəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lín
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lín
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]əm/
    English forest

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8165
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·rɯm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. forest; grove; woods
    2. circle; community; group of similar people or things
    3. A surname​, commonly romanized as Lin, Lim, and Lam
    4. Hayashi (a Japanese surname)
    5. Hayashi (a Japanese female given name)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (りん) (rin)
    • Korean: (, rim); (, im)
    • Vietnamese: lâm ()

    Others:

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    はやし
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 生やす (hayasu, to grow).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (はやし) (hayashi

    1. a grove, woods, copse
    2. (figuratively) a forest of something
    Derived terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (はやし) (Hayashi

    1. A surname​.
    2. A female given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    りん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    /rimʉ//riɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC liɪm).

    Affix[edit]

    (りん) (rin

    1. grove, forest, woods, copse
    2. gathering
    3. lined up
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (りん) (Rin

    1. A surname​.
    2. (rare) A female given name
    Usage notes[edit]

    As a surname, this reading is more often used by people of Chinese ancestry, since it is similar to the Mandarin Chinese reading of Lín.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 수풀 (supul rim), South Korea 수풀 (supul im))

    1. forest

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: lâm, Lâm

    1. forest
    2. gathering
    3. dense
    4. A surname​.

    References[edit]