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U+68EE, 森
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-68EE

[U+68ED]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+68EF]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 木木木 (DDD), four-corner 40994, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 534, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14974
  • Dae Jaweon: page 922, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1226, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+68EE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Small seal script
森-oracle.svg 森-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): Triplication of (“tree”), to suggest a large number (compare ) of trees such as one would find in a forest. Compare (OC *ɡ·rɯm).

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “why the s- initial in Mandarin?”

Pronunciation[edit]


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /sən⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂən⁴⁴/
/sən⁴⁴/
Tianjin /sən²¹/
Jinan /ʂẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂə̃²¹²³/
Zhengzhou /ʂən²⁴/
Xi'an /sẽ²¹/
Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
Kunming /sə̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sən³¹/
Hefei /sən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sən⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sen³³/
Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /san¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
Xiangtan /sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sem⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sem²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
Nanning /sɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siam³³/
/sim³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ srim ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rəm/
English dense trees

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11003
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srɯm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. full of trees
  2. in profusion
  3. dark; gloomy; cold
    /   ―  yīnsēn  ―  gloomy
  4. orderly
  5. strict; rigid; rigorous
    /   ―  sēnyán  ―  strict; tight

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. forest, woods

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
もり
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).[1]

Probably cognate with 盛り (mori, pile, heap), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 盛る (moru, to heap up, to build up into a significant amount), from the way a forest can look like a heap or mound from a distance.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (less common; specific to the shrine grove sense)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana もり, rōmaji mori)

  1. a forest (dense collection of trees)
    • 1999 July 22, “トレント [Trent]”, in Vol.4 (in Japanese), Konami:
      まだまだ (せい) (ちょう) (つづ)けている (もり) (たい) (ぼく) (もり) (まも) (かみ)
      Madamada seichōshitsuzuketeiru mori no taiboku. Mori no mamori kami.
      A growing forest tree. He is the guardian god of the woods.
    Synonym: 森林 (shinrin)
  2. a shrine grove

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana もり, rōmaji Mori)

  1. a surname

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 10, poem 1850), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(sam)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: sam, McCune–Reischauer: sam, Yale: sam)
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. forest

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(chùm, dụm, sâm, sum, sùm, xúm, dâm, dúm, râm, xum, xùm, hồng, dũng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]