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U+68EE, 森
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-68EE

[U+68ED]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+68EF]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 木木木 (DDD), four-corner 40994, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 534, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14974
  • Dae Jaweon: page 922, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1226, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+68EE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Small seal script
森-oracle.svg 森-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): Triplication of (“tree”), to suggest a large number (compare ) of trees such as one would find in a forest. Compare (OC *ɡ·rɯm).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ram (jungle; forest; country; field) (STEDT). Schuessler (2007) suggests that it may be an intensive derivation of (OC *rəm, “forest”), perhaps influenced by parallels in Austroasiatic, such as Old Khmer sarāma, sarāṃ (a tract of stunted vegetation), derived from rām (inundated forest along a watercourse). Alternatively, Mei (2012) suggests that the prefix *s- has a denominative function.

“Mori”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (もり) (mori).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • siam1 - Shantou;
  • siem1 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /sən⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂən⁴⁴/
    /sən⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /sən²¹/
    Jinan /ʂẽ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂə̃²¹²³/
    Zhengzhou /ʂən²⁴/
    Xi'an /sẽ²¹/
    Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
    Kunming /sə̃⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /sən³¹/
    Hefei /sən²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /sən⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sen³³/
    Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /san¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
    Xiangtan /sən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɛn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /sem⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sem²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
    Nanning /sɐm⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /siam³³/
    /sim³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sim²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (140)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠiɪm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚim/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃiem/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂjim/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃjəm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃĭĕm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂi̯əm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shēn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    sēn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ srim ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.rəm/
    English dense trees

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11003
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*srɯm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. full of trees
    2. in profusion
    3. dark; gloomy; cold
      /   ―  yīnsēn  ―  gloomy
    4. orderly
    5. strict; rigid; rigorous
      /   ―  sēnyán  ―  strict; tight
    6. Mori (a Japanese surname)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. forest, woods
    2. objects lined up
    3. silent

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    もり
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, first attested in the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).[1]

    Probably cognate with 盛り (mori, heap, pile), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 盛る (moru, to heap up, to build up into a significant amount), from the way a forest can look like a heap or mound from a distance.[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (もり) (mori

    1. a forest (dense collection of trees)
      • 1999 July 22, “トレント [Trent]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
        まだまだ(せい)(ちょう)(つづ)けている(もり)(たい)(ぼく)(もり)(まも)(かみ)
        Madamada seichōshitsuzuketeiru mori no taiboku. Mori no mamori kami.
        A growing forest tree. He is the guardian god of the woods.
      Synonym: 森林 (shinrin)
    2. a shrine grove

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proverbs[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (もり) (Mori

    1. a surname

    References[edit]

    1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 10, poem 1850), text here
    2. 2.0 2.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (sup sam))

    1. forest

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: chùm, dụm, sâm, sum, sùm, xúm, dâm, dúm, râm, xum, xùm, hồng, dũng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]