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U+68EE, 森
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-68EE

[U+68ED]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+68EF]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 75 +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 木木木 (DDD), four-corner 40994, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 534, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14974
  • Dae Jaweon: page 922, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1226, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+68EE

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Small seal script
森-oracle.svg 森-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): Triplication of (“tree”), to suggest a large number (compare ) of trees such as one would find in a forest. Compare (OC *ɡ·rɯm).

Pronunciation[edit]


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /sən⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂən⁴⁴/
/sən⁴⁴/
Tianjin /sən²¹/
Jinan /ʂẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂə̃²¹²³/
Zhengzhou /ʂən²⁴/
Xi'an /sẽ²¹/
Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
Kunming /sə̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sən³¹/
Hefei /sən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sən⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sen³³/
Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /san¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
Xiangtan /sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sem⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sem²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
Nanning /sɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siam³³/
/sim³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (21)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂjim/
Li
Rong
/ʃjəm/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sēn
Middle
Chinese
‹ srim ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rəm/
English dense trees

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11003
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srɯm/

Definitions[edit]

  1. full of trees
  2. in profusion
  3. dark; gloomy; cold
    /   ―  yīnsēn  ―  gloomy
  4. orderly
  5. strict; rigid; rigorous
    /   ―  sēnyán  ―  strict; tight

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. forest, woods

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
もり
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).[1]

Probably cognate with 盛り (mori, pile, heap), the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 盛る (moru, to heap up, to build up into a significant amount), from the way a forest can look like a heap or mound from a distance.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (less common; specific to the shrine grove sense)

Noun[edit]

(hiragana もり, rōmaji mori)

  1. a forest (dense collection of trees)
    • 1999 July 22, “トレント [Trent]”, in Vol.4 (in Japanese), Konami:
      まだまだ (せい) (ちょう) (つづ)けている (もり) (たい) (ぼく) (もり) (まも) (かみ)
      Madamada seichōshitsuzuketeiru mori no taiboku. Mori no mamori kami.
      A growing forest tree. He is the guardian god of the woods.
    Synonyms: 森林 (shinrin)
  2. a shrine grove

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana もり, rōmaji Mori)

  1. a surname

References[edit]

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 10, poem 1850), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(sam)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: sam, McCune-Reischauer: sam, Yale: sam)
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. forest

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(chùm, dụm, sâm, sum, sùm, xúm, dâm, dúm, râm, xum, xùm, hồng, dũng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]