sum

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See also: šum and -sum

English[edit]

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Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English summe, from Old French summe, from Latin summa, feminine of summus ‎(highest).

Noun[edit]

sum ‎(plural sums)

  1. A quantity obtained by addition or aggregation.
    The sum of 3 and 4 is 7.
    • Bible, Numbers i. 2
      Take ye the sum of all the congregation.
  2. (often plural) An arithmetic computation, especially one posed to a student as an exercise (not necessarily limited to addition).
    We're learning about division, and the sums are tricky.
    • Charles Dickens
      a large sheet of paper [] covered with long sums
  3. A quantity of money.
    a tidy sum
    the sum of forty pounds
    • Bible, Acts xxii. 28
      With a great sum obtained I this freedom.
  4. A summary; the principal points or thoughts when viewed together; the amount; the substance; compendium.
    This is the sum of all the evidence in the case.
    This is the sum and substance of his objections.
  5. A central idea or point.
  6. The utmost degree.
    • Milton
      Thus have I told thee all my state, and brought / My story to the sum of earthly bliss.
  7. (obsolete) An old English measure of corn equal to the quarter.
    • 1882, James Edwin Thorold Rogers, A History of Agriculture and Prices in England, Volume 4, page 207:
      The sum is also used for the quarter, and the strike for the bushel.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
See also[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Verb[edit]

sum ‎(third-person singular simple present sums, present participle summing, simple past and past participle summed)

  1. (transitive) To add together.
    • 2005, Plato, Sophist. Translation by Lesley Brown. 250b.
      when you say that stability and change are, it's because you're summing them up together as embraced by it, and taking note of the communion each of them has with being.
  2. (transitive) To give a summary of.
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

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 Som (currency) on Wikipedia

Wikipedia

From the Kazakh сом ‎(som), the Kyrgyz сом ‎(som), the Uyghur سوم, and the Uzbek soʻm, all of which have the core signification “pure”, used in elliptical reference to historical coins of pure gold.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

sum ‎(plural sums)

  1. The basic unit of money in Kyrgyzstan.
  2. The basic unit of money in Uzbekistan.
Translations[edit]

External links[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

sum

  1. like, as
  2. when, as

Particle[edit]

sum ‎(relative particle)

  1. that, who, which

Synonyms[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

sum

  1. Romanization of 𐍃𐌿𐌼

Icelandic[edit]

Adjective[edit]

sum

  1. the feminine nominative singular of sumur ‎(some)
  2. the neuter nominative plural of sumur ‎(some)
  3. the neuter accusative plural of sumur ‎(some)
    Ég þekkti sum barnanna.
    I knew some of the children.

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *ezom, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁ésmi ‎(I am, I exist). Cognates include Ancient Greek εἰμί ‎(eimí), Sanskrit अस्मि ‎(ásmi), Old English eom (English am); the forms beginning with F from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuH- ‎(to become, be).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

sum ‎(present infinitive esse, perfect active fuī, future participle futūrus); irregular conjugation

  1. (copulative) I am, exist, have (with dative)
    • Heauton Timorumenos (“The Self-Tormentor”) by Publius Terentius Afer
      Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto.
      I am a man, I consider nothing that is human alien to me.
    • René Descartes
      Cogito, ergo sum.
      I think, therefore I am.
    • 63 BCE, Cicero, Catiline Orations (Latin text and English translations here)
      O di immortales, ubinam gentium sumus? Quam rem publicam habemus? In qua urbe vivimus?.
      O ye immortal gods, where on earth are we? What is the government we have? In what city do we live?
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
    Sum sine regno.
    I am without a kingdom.
    Sic sum ut vides.
    Thus I am as you see.
    Dixit duas res ei rubori fuisse.
    He said that two things had abashed him.
    Civis romanus sum.
    I am a Roman citizen.

Inflection[edit]

  • The singular second person future imperative form estō is commonly, though not always, used in preference to the singular present imperative es.
   Conjugation of sum (highly irregular, suppletive, active only)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present sum es est sumus estis sunt
imperfect eram erās erat erāmus erātis erant
future erō eris, ere erit erimus eritis erunt
perfect fuī fuistī fuit fuimus fuistis fuērunt, fuēre
pluperfect fueram fuerās fuerat fuerāmus fuerātis fuerant
future perfect fuerō fueris fuerit fuerimus fueritis fuerint
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present sim sīs sit sīmus sītis sint
imperfect essem, forem essēs, forēs esset, foret essēmus, forēmus essētis, forētis essent, forent
perfect fuerim fuerīs fuerit fuerīmus fuerītis fuerint
pluperfect fuissem fuissēs fuisset fuissēmus fuissētis fuissent
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present es este
future estō estō estōte suntō
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives esse fuisse futūrus esse
participles futūrus

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]


Lojban[edit]

Rafsi[edit]

sum

  1. rafsi of sumti.

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin summa

Noun[edit]

sum m ‎(definite singular summen, indefinite plural summer, definite plural summene)

  1. a sum (addition or aggregation)
    Hva er summen av 2+2?
    What's the sum of 2+2?
  2. a sum (amount of money)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the verb summe

Noun[edit]

sum n ‎(definite singular summet)

  1. buzz (continuous noise)

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin summa

Noun[edit]

sum m ‎(definite singular summen, indefinite plural summar, definite plural summane)

  1. a sum (addition or aggregation)
    Kva er summen av 2+2?
    What's the sum of 2+2?
  2. a sum (amount of money)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From the verb summe

Noun[edit]

sum n ‎(definite singular summet)

  1. buzz (continuous noise)

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

sum n ‎(definite singular sumet, indefinite plural sum, definite plural suma)

  1. an act of swimming
    Dei la på sum utover mot holmen.
    They started swimming towards the holm.

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Norse sumr.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • som (main form)

Pronoun[edit]

sum m (feminine sum, neuter sumt, plural sume)

  1. some
    Sumt av det er nytt, resten er ved det gamle.
    Some of it is new, the rest is like it used to be.

References[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Proto-Germanic *sumaz, whence also Old High German sum, Old Norse sumr

Pronoun[edit]

sum n

  1. some

Descendants[edit]


Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Proto-Germanic *sumaz, whence also Old English sum, Old Norse sumr

Pronoun[edit]

sum n

  1. some

Declension[edit]



Polish[edit]

sum (a catfish, Silurus glanis)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

sum m anim

  1. European catfish

Declension[edit]

Noun[edit]

sum f pl

  1. genitive plural of suma

Shabo[edit]

Verb[edit]

sum

  1. say

Slovene[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

súm m inan ‎(genitive súma, nominative plural súmi)

  1. suspicion, mistrust

Declension[edit]


Vurës[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

sum

  1. to drink