root

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See also: Root

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has articles on:
Wikipedia
Some roots (1)
Some visible tree roots (1)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English rote, root, roote (the underground part of a plant), from late Old English rōt, from Old Norse rót (Icelandic rót), from Proto-Germanic *wrōts, from Proto-Indo-European *wréh₂ds (root); cognate with wort, radish, and radix.

Noun[edit]

root (countable and uncountable, plural roots)

  1. The part of a plant, generally underground, that anchors and supports the plant body, absorbs and stores water and nutrients, and in some plants is able to perform vegetative reproduction.
    Hyponym: taproot
    This tree's roots can go as deep as twenty metres underground.
  2. A root vegetable.
  3. The part of a tooth extending into the bone holding the tooth in place.
    Root damage is a common problem of overbrushing.
  4. The part of a hair under the skin that holds the hair in place.
    The root is the only part of the hair that is alive.
  5. The part of a hair near the skin that has not been dyed, permed, or otherwise treated.
    He dyed his hair black last month, so the grey roots can be seen.
  6. (figuratively) The primary source; origin.
    Synonyms: basis, origin, source
    The love of money is the root of all evil.
    • (Can we date this quote by John Locke and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      They were the roots out of which sprang two distinct people.
  7. (arithmetic) Of a number or expression, a number which, when raised to a specified power, yields the specified number or expression.
    Hyponyms: cube root, functional root, square root
    The cube root of 27 is 3.
  8. (arithmetic) A square root (understood if no power is specified; in which case, “the root of” is often abbreviated to “root”).
    Multiply by root 2.
    • 1899, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (transl.), The New Life (La Vita Nuova) of Dante Alighieri, Siddall edition, page 122.
      The number three is the root of the number nine; [] being multiplied merely by itself, it produceth nine, as we manifestly perceive that three times three are nine.
  9. (mathematical analysis) A zero (of an equation).
    Synonym: zero
    Antonym: pole
    Holonym: kernel
  10. (graph theory, computing) The single node of a tree that has no parent.
  11. (linguistic morphology) The primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. Inflectional stems often derive from roots.
    Coordinate term: stem
  12. (philology) A word from which another word or words are derived.
    Synonym: etymon
  13. (music) The fundamental tone of any chord; the tone from whose harmonics, or overtones, a chord is composed.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Busby to this entry?)
  14. The lowest place, position, or part.
    • (Can we date this quote by John Milton and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      deep to the roots of hell
    • (Can we date this quote by Southey and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      the roots of the mountains
  15. (computing) In UNIX terminology, the first user account with complete access to the operating system and its configuration, found at the root of the directory structure; the person who manages accounts on a UNIX system.
    Synonyms: superuser, root account, root user
    I have to log in as root before I do that.
  16. (computing) The highest directory of a directory structure which may contain both files and subdirectories.
    I installed the files in the root directory.
  17. (slang) A penis, especially the base of a penis.
Derived terms[edit]
Terms derived from root (noun)
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb[edit]

root (third-person singular simple present roots, present participle rooting, simple past and past participle rooted)

  1. To fix the root; to enter the earth, as roots; to take root and begin to grow.
    • (Can we date this quote by Mortimer and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      In deep grounds the weeds root deeper.
    • 2014 October 26, Jeff Howell, “Is the Japanese knotweed threat exaggerated? Our troubleshooter calls for calm about Japanese knotweed in the garden – and moss on the roof [print version: Don't panic about an overhyped invasion, 25 October 2014, p. P13]”, in The Daily Telegraph (Property)[1]:
      Some old, underfired clay pantiles might be damaged by button mosses rooting in cracks and fissures. But most post-war tiles are hard enough to withstand a bit of moss growth.
  2. To be firmly fixed; to be established.
    • (Can we date this quote by Bishop Fell and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      If any irregularity chanced to intervene and to cause misapprehensions, he gave them not leave to root and fasten by concealment.
  3. (computing, slang, transitive) To get root or priviledged access on a computer system or mobile phone, often through bypassing some security mechanism.
    Synonym: jailbreak (mobile phone)
    We rooted his box and planted a virus on it.
    I want to root my Android phone so I can remove the preinstalled crapware.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English wrōten (to dig with the snout), from Old English wrōtan, from Proto-Germanic *wrōtaną (to dig out, to root). Related to Old English wrōt (snout; trunk).

Verb[edit]

root (third-person singular simple present roots, present participle rooting, simple past and past participle rooted)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) To turn up or dig with the snout.
    A pig roots the earth for truffles.
  2. (by extension) To seek favour or advancement by low arts or grovelling servility; to fawn.
    • 1592, William Shakespeare, Richard III, Act I, scene 3:
      Thou elvish-marked, abortive, rooting hog!
  3. (intransitive) To rummage; to search as if by digging in soil.
    Synonyms: dig out, root out, rummage
    rooting about in a junk-filled drawer
  4. (transitive) To root out; to abolish.
    • (Can we date this quote by William Shakespeare and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      I will go root away the noisome weeds.
    • Bible, Deuteronomy 29:28
      The Lord rooted them out of their land [] and cast them into another land.
  5. (Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, vulgar, slang) To have sexual intercourse.
    Synonyms: screw, bang, drill (US), shag (British); see also Thesaurus:copulation
  6. (horticulture, intransitive) To grow roots
    The cuttings are starting to root.
  7. (horticulture, transitive) To prepare, oversee, or otherwise cause the rooting of cuttings
    We rooted some cuttings last summer.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The Australian/New Zealand sexual sense is somewhat milder than fuck but still quite coarse, and certainly not for polite conversation. The sexual sense will often be understood, unless care is taken with the context to make the rummage sense clear, or root through or root around is used. The past participle rooted is equivalent to fucked in the figurative sense of broken or tired, but rooting is only the direct verbal sense, not an all-purpose intensive like fucking.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

root (plural roots)

  1. (Australia, New Zealand, vulgar, slang) An act of sexual intercourse.
    Synonyms: screw (UK, US), shag (UK); see also Thesaurus:copulation
    Fancy a root?
  2. (Australia, New Zealand, vulgar, slang) A sexual partner.
    Synonym: screw (US)
Usage notes[edit]
  • The Australian/New Zealand sexual sense of root is somewhat milder than fuck but still quite coarse, certainly not for polite conversation. The normal usage is to have a root or similar.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Possibly an alteration of rout (to make a loud noise), influenced by hoot.

Verb[edit]

root (third-person singular simple present roots, present participle rooting, simple past and past participle rooted)

  1. (intransitive, with "for" or "on", US) To cheer (on); to show support (for) and hope for the success of. (See root for.) [late 19th century]
    Synonyms: barrack (Australia, New Zealand), cheer on
    I'm rooting for you, don't let me down!
Translations[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


German Low German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Saxon rōd, from Proto-Germanic *raudaz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁rowdʰós < *h₁rewdʰ-. Compare Dutch rood, German rot, West Frisian read, English red, Danish rød.

Adjective[edit]

root (comparative röder, superlative röödst)

  1. red

Declension[edit]


Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch rōt, from Proto-Germanic *raudaz, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁rowdʰós, from the root *h₁rewdʰ-.

Adjective[edit]

rôot

  1. red

Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants[edit]

  • Dutch: rood
  • Limburgish: roead

Further reading[edit]

  • root”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000

Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885–1929), “root (I)”, in Middelniederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN, page I


Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old English rōt.

Noun[edit]

root

  1. Alternative form of rote (root)

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown.

Noun[edit]

root

  1. Alternative form of rote (habit)

Etymology 3[edit]

A back-formation from roten (to rot).

Noun[edit]

root

  1. Alternative form of rot

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English root.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

root m (plural roots)

  1. (computing) root (user with complete access to the operating system)