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U+6839, 根
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6839

[U+6838]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+683A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
10 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 75, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 木日女 (DAV), four-corner 47932, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 524, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14745
  • Dae Jaweon: page 912, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1208, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+6839

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kɯːn): semantic + phonetic (OC *kɯːns).

Etymology[edit]

Possibly of Austroasiatic origin (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *(d)kər (tree, plant) (whence Proto-Vietic *kəl > Vietnamese cây, Muong câl), *d₂gəl ~ d₂g(əə)l (trunk; stump) (whence Khmer គល់ (kŭəl, stump; floating log), Proto-Monic *t(l)gəl (stump)).

Alternatively, Smith (2011) proposes a derivation from (OC *kɯː, “grassroot”) with redundant nominalizing suffix *-n. See for more.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • gṳ̆ng - vernacular (“root; descendant; base”);
  • gŏng - literary (“source; basis”).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • geng1 - Chaozhou, Shantou, Chenghai;
    • gêng1 - Jieyang;
    • ging1 - Chaoyang.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: gieng1
      • Sinological IPA: /kieŋ³⁵/
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (53)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter kon
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kən/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kən/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kən/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kən/
    Li
    Rong
    /kən/
    Wang
    Li
    /kən/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kən/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gēn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gan1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gēn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kon ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˁə[r]/
    English root, trunk

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3920
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kɯːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (botany) root (Classifier: m)
        ―  shùgēn  ―  root of a tree
    2. base; basis; foundation
    3. family root; ancestors
        ―  xúngēn  ―  to search for one's ancestral roots
    4. (figurative) descendant; offspring
    5. source; origin
    6. (figurative) penis (Classifier: m)
    7. (Buddhism) indriya; faculty; spiritual faculty
    8. (arithmetic) root
      均方  ―  jūnfānggēn  ―  root mean square
    9. (mathematics) solution to an algebraic equation (Classifier: m)
    10. (chemistry) radical
    11. (computing) root
      目錄目录  ―  gēn mùlù  ―  root directory
      分區分区  ―  gēn fēnqū  ―  root partition
    12. completely; from the source
    13. Classifier for long, slender objects, such as cigarettes, fingers, candles, ropes, and guitar strings.all nouns using this classifier

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (descendant):
    • (source):
    • (arithmetic root): 方根 (fānggēn)

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. root
    2. base, foundation

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. First cited to the Kojiki of 712.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ne

    1. [from 712] a root of a plant
    2. [from 720] (by extension) the source or root of something
    3. [from 1000] the cause or basis for something
    4. [from mid-1300s] one's nature, the character one has by birth
    Synonyms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こん
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kon). First cited in Japanese contexts in the 法華義疏 (Hokke Gisho) dated to 615,[1] a commentary on the Buddhist Lotus Sutra that was written in Classical Chinese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こん) (kon

    1. [from 615] (Buddhism) the original motive force leading to perception of something by the five senses or by thought
    2. [from 1477] genitals; more commonly, the male genitals
    3. [from 1790] perseverance, patience
      Synonym: 根気 (konki)
    4. [from 1889] (mathematics) a root, such as a square root (calque of English root)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 뿌리 (ppuri geun))

    1. Hanja form? of (root; base; stump).

    Compounds[edit]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (ne).

    Noun[edit]

    (にー) (

    1. root

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: căn, cằn, cỗi

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.