rote

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See also: Rote, roté, and Röte

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English rote, further origin unknown. Likely from the phrase bi (by) rote (heart), c. 1300. Some have proposed a relationship either with Old French rote/rute (route), or Latin rota (wheel) (see rotary), but the OED calls both suggestions groundless.

Noun[edit]

rote (uncountable)

  1. (Should we delete(+) this sense?) The process of learning or committing something to memory through mechanical repetition, usually by hearing and repeating aloud, often without full attention to comprehension or thought for the meaning.
    • 2009 April 2, Jim Holt, “Got Poetry?”, in New York Times[1]:
      But memorize them we did, in big painful chunks, by rote repetition.
    They didn’t have copies of the music for everyone, so most of us had to learn the song by rote.
  2. Mechanical routine; a fixed, habitual, repetitive, or mechanical course of procedure.
    The pastoral scenes from those commercials don’t bear too much resemblance to the rote of daily life on a farm.
    He could perform by rote any of his roles in Shakespeare.
Usage notes[edit]
  • Commonly found in the phrase “by rote” and in attributive use: “rote learning”, “rote memorization”, and so on.
  • Often used pejoratively in comparison with “deeper” learning that leads to “understanding”.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
See also[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rote (comparative more rote, superlative most rote)

  1. By repetition or practice.
    • 2000, Ami Klin; Fred R. Volkmar, Sara S. Sparrow, Asperger syndrome‎, page 316:
      The former may be seen as a more rote form of learning, contrasting with the latter which appears to include "executive" aspects

Verb[edit]

rote (third-person singular simple present rotes, present participle roting, simple past and past participle roted)

  1. (obsolete) To go out by rotation or succession; to rotate.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Zane Grey to this entry?)
  2. (transitive) To learn or repeat by rote.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shakespeare to this entry?)

Etymology 2[edit]

c. 1600, from Old Norse rót n (tossing, pitching (of sea)), perhaps related to rauta (to roar).

Noun[edit]

rote (uncountable)

  1. (rare) The roar of the surf; the sound of waves breaking on the shore.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Middle English rote, from Old French rote, probably of German origin; compare Middle High German rotte, and English crowd (a kind of violin).

Noun[edit]

rote (plural rotes)

  1. (music) A kind of guitar, the notes of which were produced by a small wheel or wheel-like arrangement; an instrument similar to the hurdy-gurdy.
    • Sir Walter Scott
      extracting mistuned dirges from their harps, crowds, and rotes
  2. Synonym of crowd

References[edit]

  • rote at OneLook Dictionary Search

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Noun[edit]

rote f (plural rotes)

  1. rote (musical instrument)

Verb[edit]

rote

  1. first-person singular present indicative of roter
  2. third-person singular present indicative of roter
  3. first-person singular present subjunctive of roter
  4. third-person singular present subjunctive of roter
  5. second-person singular imperative of roter

Anagrams[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

rote

  1. strong, mixed and weak feminine singular nominative form of rot.
  2. strong, mixed and weak feminine singular accusative form of rot.
  3. strong plural nominative form of rot.
  4. strong plural accusative form of rot.
  5. weak masculine singular nominative form of rot.
  6. weak neuter singular nominative form of rot.
  7. weak neuter singular accusative form of rot.

Italian[edit]

Noun[edit]

rote f

  1. plural of rota

Middle English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Late Old English rōt, rōte, from Old Norse rót, from Proto-Germanic *wrōts, from Proto-Indo-European *wréh₂ds. Doublet of wort (plant). See more at English root.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rote (plural rotes or roten)

  1. The root (submerged part of a plant):
    • c. 1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, “General Prologue”, in The Canterbury Tales (in Middle English), lines 1-3:
      Whan that Aprill, with his shoures soote /, The droghte of March hath perced to the roote / And bathed every veyne in swich licour []
      When that April, with its sweet showers / Has pierced March's drought to the root / And bathed every vein in such fluid []
    1. A root used as food; a root vegetable or tuber.
    2. A root employed for supposed curative or medical properties.
  2. The foundation or base of a protuberance or extension of the body:
    1. The root of the hair; the part of the hair within the scalp.
    2. The root of the tooth; the part of the tooth within the scalp.
    3. The root of a nail; the part of a nail within the skin.
    4. The base or attached part of an organ or bodily member.
    5. The base or attached part of a swelling or boil.
  3. Something which generates, creates, or emanates something:
    1. The origin of an abstract quality; that which something originally came from.
      • a. 1382, John Wycliffe, “1 Tymothe 6:10”, in Wycliffe's Bible (in Middle English):
        For the rote of alle yuelis is coueytiſe, which ſummen coueitinge erriden fro the feith, and biſettiden hem with many ſorewis.
        And the root of all wrongs is covetousness, which some yearned for and strayed from the faith; they've unleashed many sorrows upon themselves.
    2. A wellspring or exemplar of an abstract quality that which something comes from.
    3. The offspring of a certain individual or nation as a progenitor; a lineage or descent.
      • a. 1382, John Wycliffe, “Apocalips 5:5”, in Wycliffe's Bible (in Middle English):
        And oon of the eldre men ſeide to me, Wepe thou not; lo! a lioun of the lynage of Juda, the roote of Dauid, hath ouercomun to opene the book, and to vndon the ſeuene ſeelis of it.
        And one of the elders said to me: "Don't weep. Look, a lion of the people of Judah and the stock of David has arrived to open the book and undo its seven seals."
  4. The foundation of a tall structure (e.g. a trunk, pole, turret)
  5. The (or a key) foundational or core condition, essence or portion of something.
  6. One who descends from another; a member of an individual's lineage or stock.
    • a. 1382, John Wycliffe, “Apocalips 21:16”, in Wycliffe's Bible (in Middle English):
      I Jheſus ſente myn aungel, to witneſſe to ȝou theſe thingis in chirchis. Y am the roote and kyn of Dauid, and the ſchynynge morewe ſterre.
      "I, Jesus, sent my angel to deliver all of you these things in churches. I'm the scion and descendant of David and (I'm) the shining morning star."
  7. The base of a peak or mount; the beginning of an elevation.
  8. A protuberance resembling or functioning like a root.
  9. The most inner, central, or deepest part of something.
  10. (rare, astronomy) Data used for astronomical purposes.
  11. (rare, mathematics) A mathematical root.
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Unknown.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rote (uncountable)

  1. Traditional, customary, usual, or habitual behaviour or procedure.
Descendants[edit]
References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Borrowed from Old French rote, from Latin chrotta, borrowed from a Germanic form such as Old High German hruoza, borrowed itself from a Celtic term deriving from Proto-Celtic *krottos; compare Welsh crwth. A doublet of crowde.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rote (plural rotys)

  1. A musical instrument having strings and similar to a harp.
Descendants[edit]
  • English: rote
  • Scots: rote (rare, obsolete)
References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old English rotian.

Verb[edit]

rote

  1. Alternative form of roten (to rot)

Etymology 5[edit]

From rote (root) +‎ -en (verbal ending).

Verb[edit]

rote

  1. Alternative form of roten (to root)

Etymology 6[edit]

From Old Norse rotinn (rotten).

Adjective[edit]

rote

  1. Alternative form of roten (rotten)

Etymology 7[edit]

A back-formation from roten (to rot).

Noun[edit]

rote

  1. Alternative form of rot

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse róta.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

rote (present tense roter, past tense rota or rotet, past participle rota or rotet)

  1. to untidy, to make a mess
  2. (slang) to fool around (engage in casual or flirtatious sexual acts)

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]


Old French[edit]

Noun[edit]

rote f (oblique plural rotes, nominative singular rote, nominative plural rotes)

  1. rote (musical instrument)

Descendants[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Verb[edit]

rote

  1. first-person singular (eu) present subjunctive of rotar
  2. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present subjunctive of rotar
  3. third-person singular (você) affirmative imperative of rotar
  4. third-person singular (você) negative imperative of rotar

Spanish[edit]

Verb[edit]

rote

  1. Formal second-person singular (usted) imperative form of rotar.
  2. First-person singular (yo) present subjunctive form of rotar.
  3. Formal second-person singular (usted) present subjunctive form of rotar.
  4. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present subjunctive form of rotar.

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Old Swedish rote, cognate with English rout and Latin rutta, ruptus.

Noun[edit]

rote c

  1. a district (of a parish or town, for the purpose of fire fighting, road maintenance, mail forwarding, social care, etc.)
  2. a file, a section, a squad, a pair (of soldiers, of aircraft)
    20 rotar
    twenty file
    med utryckta rotar
    four deep
    indelning av rotar!
    squad-number!

Declension[edit]

Declension of rote 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative rote roten rotar rotarna
Genitive rotes rotens rotars rotarnas

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]