summus

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Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

For *supmus < *supimus, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)up-(t)m̥mo-, from *upo + *(t)m̥mo-. Confer Proto-Germanic *ufumô and Sanskrit उपम (upama, uppermost). See also suprēmus and -issimus.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

summus (feminine summa, neuter summum); first/second declension

  1. highest, greatest, the most high
    • 4th century, St Jerome, Vulgate, Tobit 3:24
      in illo tempore exauditae sunt preces amborum in conspectu gloriae summi Dei (At that time the prayers of them both were heard in the sight of the glory of the most high God:)

Inflection[edit]

First/second declension.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
nominative summus summa summum summī summae summa
genitive summī summae summī summōrum summārum summōrum
dative summō summō summīs
accusative summum summam summum summōs summās summa
ablative summō summā summō summīs
vocative summe summa summum summī summae summa

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • summus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • summus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • du Cange, Charles (1883), “summus”, in G. A. Louis Henschel, Pierre Carpentier, Léopold Favre, editors, Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (in Latin), Niort: L. Favre
  • summus” in Félix Gaffiot’s Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette (1934)
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the top of a mountain: summus mons
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles summus vir illius aetatis
    • to attain to the highest offices: ad summos honores pervenire (cf. also sect. V. 17)
    • (ambiguous) a gentle ascent: collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)
    • (ambiguous) the surface of the water: summa aqua
    • (ambiguous) in the height of summer, depth of winter: summa aestate, hieme
    • (ambiguous) the position is very critical: res in summo discrimine versatur
    • (ambiguous) to be entirely destitute; to be a beggar: in summa egestate or mendicitate esse
    • (ambiguous) to be bound by the closest ties of friendship: artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: dignitas est summa in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: summa dignitate praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have reached the highest pinnacle of eminence: summa gloria florere
    • (ambiguous) to bring to the highest perfection: ad summum perducere
    • (ambiguous) to attain perfection: ad perfectionem, (ad summum) pervenire
    • (ambiguous) ideal perfection: absolutio et perfectio (not summa perfectio)
    • (ambiguous) to be an ardent student of..: summo studio in litteris versari
    • (ambiguous) to possess rich mental endowments: summo ingenio praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) unanimously: uno, communi, summo or omnium consensu (Tusc. 1. 15. 35)
    • (ambiguous) the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • (ambiguous) a master-piece of classical work: opus summo artificio[TR1] factum
    • (ambiguous) to depict a thing in lively colours: summo colore aliquid illustrare
    • (ambiguous) to consider virtue the highest good: summum bonum in virtute ponere
    • (ambiguous) to honour the gods with all due ceremonial (very devoutly): deum rite (summa religione) colere
    • (ambiguous) to stand in very intimate relations to some one: summa necessitudine aliquem contingere
    • (ambiguous) to be in severe pecuniary straits: in summa difficultate nummaria versari (Verr. 2. 28. 69)
    • (ambiguous) the welfare of the state: summa res publica (or summa rei publicae)
    • (ambiguous) of high rank: summo loco natus
    • (ambiguous) high and low: summi (et) infimi (Rep. 1. 34. 53)
    • (ambiguous) to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • (ambiguous) the command-in-chief: summa belli, imperii (B. G. 2. 4. 7)
    • (ambiguous) the position is critical: res est in periculo, in summo discrimine
    • (ambiguous) deep peace: summa pax
    • (ambiguous) legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).