From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search



From Proto-Italic *supemos, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)úp-m̥mo-s, from *upó + *-m̥mo-. Cognate with Proto-Germanic *ufumô, Sanskrit उपम (upamá, uppermost). See also suprēmus and -issimus.



summus (feminine summa, neuter summum); first/second declension

  1. superlative degree of superus
    1. highest, greatest, the most high
      • 4th century, St Jerome, Vulgate, Tobit 3:24
        in illo tempore exauditae sunt preces amborum in conspectu gloriae summi Dei
        At that time, the prayers of them both were heard in the sight of the glory of God most high
    2. top, uppermost
      summus mōnsthe top of a/the mountain
      summa columnathe top of a column
      summa senectūsvery old age ("the top" of old age)


First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative summus summa summum summī summae summa
Genitive summī summae summī summōrum summārum summōrum
Dative summō summō summīs
Accusative summum summam summum summōs summās summa
Ablative summō summā summō summīs
Vocative summe summa summum summī summae summa


Derived terms[edit]



  • summus”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • summus”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • summus in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • summus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the top of a mountain: summus mons
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles summus vir illius aetatis
    • to attain to the highest offices: ad summos honores pervenire (cf. also sect. V. 17)
    • (ambiguous) a gentle ascent: collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)
    • (ambiguous) the surface of the water: summa aqua
    • (ambiguous) in the height of summer, depth of winter: summa aestate, hieme
    • (ambiguous) the position is very critical: res in summo discrimine versatur
    • (ambiguous) to be entirely destitute; to be a beggar: in summa egestate or mendicitate esse
    • (ambiguous) to be bound by the closest ties of friendship: artissimo amicitiae vinculo or summa familiaritate cum aliquo coniunctum esse
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: dignitas est summa in aliquo
    • (ambiguous) to be in a dignified position: summa dignitate praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) to have reached the highest pinnacle of eminence: summa gloria florere
    • (ambiguous) to bring to the highest perfection: ad summum perducere
    • (ambiguous) to attain perfection: ad perfectionem, (ad summum) pervenire
    • (ambiguous) ideal perfection: absolutio et perfectio (not summa perfectio)
    • (ambiguous) to be an ardent student of..: summo studio in litteris versari
    • (ambiguous) to possess rich mental endowments: summo ingenio praeditum esse
    • (ambiguous) unanimously: uno, communi, summo or omnium consensu (Tusc. 1. 15. 35)
    • (ambiguous) the learned men are most unanimous in..: summa est virorum doctissimorum consensio (opp. dissensio)
    • (ambiguous) a master-piece of classical work: opus summo artificio[TR1] factum
    • (ambiguous) to depict a thing in lively colours: summo colore aliquid illustrare
    • (ambiguous) to consider virtue the highest good: summum bonum in virtute ponere
    • (ambiguous) to honour the gods with all due ceremonial (very devoutly): deum rite (summa religione) colere
    • (ambiguous) to stand in very intimate relations to some one: summa necessitudine aliquem contingere
    • (ambiguous) to be in severe pecuniary straits: in summa difficultate nummaria versari (Verr. 2. 28. 69)
    • (ambiguous) the welfare of the state: summa res publica (or summa rei publicae)
    • (ambiguous) of high rank: summo loco natus
    • (ambiguous) high and low: summi (et) infimi (Rep. 1. 34. 53)
    • (ambiguous) to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • (ambiguous) the command-in-chief: summa belli, imperii (B. G. 2. 4. 7)
    • (ambiguous) the position is critical: res est in periculo, in summo discrimine
    • (ambiguous) deep peace: summa pax
    • (ambiguous) legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).