林檎

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Chinese[edit]

phonetic
simp. and trad.
(林檎)
variant forms 林禽
來禽来禽

Etymology 1[edit]

Likely a loanword from a language in the Western Regions. First attested during the WeiJin era.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (37) (30)
Final () (139) (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liɪm/ /ɡˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/lim/ /ɡᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljem/ /ɡiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lim/ /gjim/
Li
Rong
/liəm/ /ɡjəm/
Wang
Li
/lĭĕm/ /ɡĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯əm/ /gi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lín qín
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lín
Middle
Chinese
‹ lim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]əm/
English forest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 8165 6614
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·rɯm/ /*ɡrɯm/

Noun[edit]

林檎

  1. Malus asiatica (Chinese pear-leaved crabapple)
  2. wedding gift
  3. (Teochew) sugar apple
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of 番荔枝 (“sugar apple”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 番荔枝
Taxonomic name 番荔枝
Mandarin Beijing 番荔枝
Taiwan 釋迦, 釋迦果
Cantonese Guangzhou 番荔枝, 番鬼荔枝, 番鬼佬荔枝
Hong Kong 番荔枝, 番鬼荔枝, 番鬼佬荔枝, 番枝
Dongguan 番鬼荔枝
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian) 佛果, 釋迦
Liudui (S. Sixian) 釋迦仔, 沙梨仔, 沙梨, 牛心梨
Hsinchu (Hailu) 佛果, 釋迦
Dongshi (Dabu) 釋迦
Hsinchu (Raoping) 佛果, 釋迦
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 釋迦
Min Nan Xiamen 番仔荔枝, 釋迦
Zhangzhou 番仔荔枝, 釋迦
Taipei 釋迦
Kaohsiung 釋迦
Tainan 釋迦
Taichung 釋迦
Hsinchu 釋迦
Lukang 釋迦
Sanxia 釋迦
Yilan 釋迦
Kinmen 釋迦
Magong 釋迦
Penang nona
Chaozhou 林檎

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Japanese  (りん) () (ringo).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lin-kó, lin-ngò - from Japanese pronunciation.
Note: lìn-gò͘ - from Japanese pronunciation.

Noun[edit]

林檎

  1. (Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka) apple
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of 蘋果 (“apple”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 蘋果
Taxonomic name 蘋果
Mandarin Beijing 蘋果
Taiwan 蘋果
Harbin 蘋果
Jinan 蘋果
Muping 蘋果
Luoyang 蘋果
Jiedian 蘋果
Xi'an 蘋果
Xining 蘋果
Xuzhou 蘋果
Yinchuan 蘋果
Ürümqi 蘋果, 果子
Wuhan 蘋果
Chengdu 蘋果
Guiyang 蘋果
Liuzhou 蘋果
Yangzhou 蘋果
Nanjing 蘋果
Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 果子
Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 果子
Cantonese Guangzhou 蘋果
Hong Kong 蘋果
Foshan 蘋果
Shunde 蘋果
Zhongshan (Shiqi) 蘋果
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 蘋果
Doumen 蘋果
Taishan 蘋果
Kaiping (Chikan) 蘋果
Dongguan 蘋果
Gan Nanchang 蘋果
Lichuan 蘋果
Pingxiang 蘋果
Hakka Meixian 蘋果
Yudu 蘋果
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 林檎
Liudui (S. Sixian) 林檎
Hsinchu (Hailu) 林檎
Dongshi (Dabu) 林檎, 蘋果
Hsinchu (Raoping) 林檎
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 蘋果, 林檎
Huizhou Jixi 蘋果
Jin Taiyuan 蘋果
Xinzhou 蘋果
Min Bei Jian'ou 蘋果
Min Dong Fuzhou 蘋果
Min Nan Xiamen 蘋果
Quanzhou 蘋果
Zhangzhou 蘋果
Taipei 瓜果
Kaohsiung 林檎, 蘋果
Tainan 林檎, 蘋果
Taichung 林檎, 蘋果
Hsinchu 林檎
Lukang 蘋果
Sanxia 瓜果
Yilan 林檎, 蘋果
Kinmen 蘋果
Magong 蘋果, 林檎
Penang 蘋果
Philippines (Manila) 蘋果
Chaozhou 蘋果
Haikou 蘋果
Pinghua Nanning 蘋果
Wu Shanghai 蘋果
Suzhou 蘋果
Hangzhou 蘋果
Wenzhou 蘋果
Chongming 蘋果
Danyang 蘋果
Jinhua 蘋果
Ningbo 蘋果
Xiang Changsha 蘋果
Loudi 蘋果

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
りん
Grade: 1

Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

林檎 (hiragana りんご, katakana リンゴ, rōmaji ringo)

  1. apple (fruit, tree)
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as リンゴ.

Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Jinmeiyō
Irregular

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
    • IPA(key): [ɾʲɨᵝːɡo̞ː]

Noun[edit]

林檎 (hiragana りゅうごう, rōmaji ryūgō, historical hiragana りうごう)

  1. (obsolete) apple (fruit, tree)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN