林檎

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Chinese[edit]

phonetic
simp. and trad.
(林檎)
alternative forms 林禽
來禽来禽

Etymology 1[edit]

First attested during the WeiJin era.

Likely a loanword from a language in the Western Regions.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (37) (30)
Final () (139) (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liɪm/ /ɡˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/lim/ /ɡᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljem/ /ɡiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lim/ /gjim/
Li
Rong
/liəm/ /ɡjəm/
Wang
Li
/lĭĕm/ /ɡĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯əm/ /gi̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lín qín
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lín
Middle
Chinese
‹ lim ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]əm/
English forest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 8165 6614
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·rɯm/ /*ɡrɯm/

Noun[edit]

林檎

  1. Malus asiatica (Chinese pear-leaved crabapple)
  2. wedding gift
  3. (Teochew) sugar apple
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
Sino-Xenic (林檎):
  • Korean: 임금 (林檎, imgeum)

Other:

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Japanese 林檎 (ringo), from Middle Chinese 林檎 (MC liɪm ɡˠiɪm).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: lin-kó, lin-ngò - from Japanese pronunciation.
Note: lìn-gò͘ - from Japanese pronunciation.

Noun[edit]

林檎

  1. (Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka) apple
Synonyms[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
りん
Grade: 1

Jinmeiyō
on’yomi kan’yōon
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
林檎 (ringo): a bunch of freshly-picked apples.

/rimʉɡomʉ//riŋɡõː//riŋɡo/

From Middle Chinese 林檎 (MC liɪm ɡˠiɪm).

Originally referred to the Chinese pearleaf crabapple (Malus asiatica) imported from China, it has expanded to mean any apple of the Malus genus.

First cited in 918 in the 本草和名 (Honzō Wamyō, Japanese names for medicinal plants).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(りん)() (ringo

  1. [918] an apple
Usage notes[edit]

Can refer to either the fruit or the tree. As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as リンゴ.

Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
りん > りゅう
Grade: 1
ごん > ごう
Jinmeiyō
Irregular

/rimʉɡomʉ//riũɡoũ//rʲuːɡoː/

A variant shift from Middle Chinese 林檎 (MC liɪm ɡˠiɪm). The shift in reading was due to an orthographic inconsistency in spelling the nasalized mora marked as (n) in modern Japanese.[1] In ancient texts, this kana did not yet exist, and the sound was often spelled using the (mu) kana, which in certain terms shifted to, and may have been spelled as, (u).

Appears in the 和名類聚抄 (Wamyō Ruijushō) of c. 938 C.E..[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ɾʲɨᵝːɡo̞ː]

Noun[edit]

(りゅう)(ごう) (ryūgō (historical kana りうごう)

  1. [938] (rare, obsolete) an apple

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
りん
Grade: 1
きん > き
Jinmeiyō
on’yomi kan’on

/rimʉkimʉ/ → */rinkiɴ//rinki/

Another variant shift from Middle Chinese 林檎 (MC liɪm ɡˠiɪm).

Appears in the 色葉字類抄 (Iroha Jiruishō) of 1181.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(りん)() (rinki

  1. [1138] (rare, obsolete) an apple

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN