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See also:
U+65B9, 方
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65B9

[U+65B8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65BA]
U+2F45, ⽅
KANGXI RADICAL SQUARE

[U+2F44]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F46]
Commons:Category
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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
4 strokes
Stroke order (alternative)
4 strokes
Stroke order
方-order.gif
Stroke order
(alternative)
方-aorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 70, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹尸 (YHS), four-corner 00227, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #70, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 481, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13620
  • Dae Jaweon: page 842, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2172, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+65B9

Further reading[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
方-oracle.svg 方-bronze.svg 方-silk.svg 方-seal.svg 方-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): + (sword)blade; tip of a blade. Original form of (OC *maːŋ, *maŋ, “awn (of cereal); tip (of blade)”); later borrowed to mean “side”. Other theories regarding the origin of this character also exist.

It is unrelated to (“fluttering flag”), from which characters like (OC *ɡɯ, “flag”) and (OC *ɡ·raʔ, “troops”) are derived.

Etymology 1[edit]

"side; square; region"
Probably related to (OC *baːŋ), (OC *baːŋ, *baːŋs) (Schuessler, 2007).
"parallel boats"
Cognate with (OC *paːŋs, *paŋs, “boat”), (“boat”). According to STEDT, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *poŋ (raft; float); compare Burmese ဖောင် (hpaung, raft), Jingpho hpong (kac). According to Schuessler (2007), this etymon is an area word; compare Thai พ่วง (pûuang, raft; pontoon), Proto-Austronesian *qabaŋ (boat), Old Mon kɓaŋ (ship; boat).
"just now"; "now"
Cognate with (OC *paʔ, “just now”). Compare Jingpho hpang (phaŋ³³, to begin), Proto-Kuki-Chin *pran (to begin) (STEDT).
"method; law"
Etymology not certain. May be the same word as (OC *paŋ, “side; square; region”). Cognate with 仿 (OC *pʰaŋʔ, “to imitate”). Perhaps cognate with Tibetan བྱང་བ (byang ba, skill; experience), Tibetan སྦྱངས (sbyangs, trained; exercised studied) (Schuessler, 2007). Alternatively, it may belong to Khmer ព្រាង (priəng, to draft; to sketch) < Khmer រាង (riəng, shape; form; figure). If so, it belongs to an Austroasiatic allofam which includes (OC *zraŋs, “form; appearance”). "Law; norm; standard" is a common extension of "form; shape".

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • hng - vernacular (“prescription; place”);
  • png/puiⁿ - vernacular (surname);
  • hong - literary.
Note:
  • bang1 - vernacular (“square; power; unit of measurement”);
  • hng1 - vernacular (“prescription”);
  • bung1 - vernacular (surname);
  • huang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (106)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pʉɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pʷiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /piuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /piuaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭwaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /piwaŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fāng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    fong1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fāng fāng fāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjang › ‹ pjang › ‹ pjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C-paŋ/ /*paŋ/ /*paŋ/
    English square method just, then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3023
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*paŋ/
    Notes
    Definitions[edit]

    1. parallel; side by side
    2. parallel boats
    3. raft made of bamboo
    4. to match; to be equal to
    5. to compare; to set side by side
    6. to differentiate; to discriminate
    7. to occupy; to take up
    8. (mathematics) square; rectangle; cube
        ―  zhèngfāngxíng  ―  square
      /   ―  chángfāngxíng  ―  rectangle
        ―  fāngzhuō  ―  square table
    9. side; aspect; party
        ―  fāngmiàn  ―  aspect; side
    10. place; region; locality
      /   ―  yuǎnfāng  ―  faraway place
    11. orientation; direction
      /   ―  dōngfāng  ―  east
        ―  qiánfāng  ―  front
    12. all sides; all directions
    13. law; rule; reason
    14. method; way
      教導 / 教导  ―  jiàodǎo yǒufāng  ―  to teach with the right method
    15. sort; category; kind
    16. moral principle and knowledge; learning
    17. earth; solid earth; ground
    18. (traditional Chinese medicine) prescription
        ―  fāng  ―  ancient prescription
        ―  piānfāng  ―  folk prescription
    19. (mathematics) power
      238  ―  2 de 3 cìfāng shì 8.  ―  2 to the third power is 8.
    20. (mathematics) Short for 平方米 (píngfāngmǐ, “Classifier for square metre.”).
    21. (mathematics) Short for 立方米 (lìfāngmǐ, “Classifier for cubic metre.”).
    22. circumference; perimeter
    23. upright; honest; irreproachable
        ―  fāngzhèng  ―  upright; righteous
    24. just; just when; at the time when; just now; now
      興未艾 / 兴未艾  ―  fāngxìngwèi'ài  ―  to be now rising or flourishing and have not yet stopped
    25. just; only
      書到用時恨少 / 书到用时恨少  ―  shū dào yòng shí fāng hèn shào  ―  to regret not acquiring enough knowledge only when it comes time to apply it
      解決社會問題市道回穩 [MSC, trad.]
      解决社会问题市道回稳 [MSC, simp.]
      Jiějué shèhuì wèntí fāng néng lìng shìdào huíwěn. [Pinyin]
      Only after solving social issues can the market recover.
      Synonym: (cái)
    26. at (a specific time)
    27. will; going to
    28. (dictionaries) Short for 方言 (fāngyán, “dialect”).
    29. A surname​.
    Compounds[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ほう) ()
    • Korean: (, bang)
    • Vietnamese: phương ()

    Others:

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (106)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bʉɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bʷiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /biuaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭwaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱiwaŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fáng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    fong4
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3056
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*baŋ/
    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 方輿方舆 (Fángyù, “an ancient county in modern Shandong”).
    2. to disobey
    3. Alternative form of (fáng).
    4. Alternative form of (fáng).

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Rendering of a dialectal pronunciation of (huāng).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    (Mainland China, neologism, slang)

    1. Pronunciation spelling of (huāng, to panic).
        ―  fāng le!  ―  I panic!
    2. Pronunciation spelling of (huāng, panicky).
        ―  Hǎo fāng!  ―  So panicky!

    Etymology 3[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 仿 (“to imitate; to resemble; to be similar; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of 仿.)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Used in 方羊.
    2. Used in 方洋.
    3. Used in 方皇.
    4. Alternative form of (páng).

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 方良.

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Borrowed from English phon.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. phon (unit of apparent loudness)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. direction
    2. person
    3. alternative

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ほう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (pjang).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ほう) (ほう (fou)?

    1. direction, way, side
      (おに)さんこちら()()(ほう)
      oni-san kochira, te no naru e
      hey, "it", over here, to (the direction of) the clapping of the hands (phrase said in tag)
    2. more so (preceded by ~の, often followed by ~が)
      この時計(とけい)(ほう)がそっちより(たか)いです。
      Kono tokei no ga sotchi yori takai desu.
      This watch is more expensive than that one.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かた
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (かた) (kata

    1. (polite) person
      あの(かた)
      Ano kata.
      That person. (polite)
      あの(かた)はどなたですか。
      Ano kata wa donata desu ka.
      Who is that gentleman? (formal)
    Synonyms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (かた) (-kata

    1. way, method (of doing)
      ()(かた)
      kakikata
      way of writing something; how to write something
      使(つか)(かた)
      tsukaikata
      way of using something; how to use something
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    pe > ɸe > we > e.

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-e (fe)?

    1. a suffix expressing location, direction, or time
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    さま
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[3]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (さま) (sama

    1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
    2. the state or situation of a thing
    3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
    4. one's social station, status, or quality
    5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
    6. the reason or circumstances for something

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (mo bang))

    1. Hanja form? of (direction).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: phương ((phủ)(lương)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: phương[1][2][3], vuông[1][3][4], phăng[1]

    1. Hán tự form of phương (way; direction; means; method).

    References[edit]