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U+65B9, 方
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65B9

[U+65B8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65BA]
See also:

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
方-orderPRC.gif
Taiwanese stroke order
方-tbw.png
Taiwanese
stroke order
方-torder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 70 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹尸 (YHS), four-corner 00227, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #70, (square).

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 481, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13620
  • Dae Jaweon: page 842, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2172, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+65B9

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
方-oracle.svg 方-bronze.svg 方-silk.svg 方-bigseal.svg 方-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*paːŋ
*paːŋʔ, *praːŋs, *braːŋ
*paːŋʔ, *braːŋ
*paːŋʔ
*paːŋʔ, *paːŋs, *baːŋ
*paːŋs, *braːŋ
*paːŋs, *paŋs
*paːŋs
*pʰaːŋ
*pʰaːŋ, *pʰraːŋ
*pʰaːŋ
*pʰaːŋ
*pʰaːŋ
*pʰaːŋʔ, *baːŋ
*baːŋ, *pʰaŋʔ
*baːŋ, *paŋ, *paŋs
*baːŋ, *baŋ
*baːŋ, *braːŋ
*baːŋ, *praːŋ, *braːŋ
*baːŋ, *baːŋs
*baːŋ
*baːŋ
*baːŋs
*praːŋ
*praːŋ
*praːŋ
*paŋ, *baŋ
*paŋ
*paŋ, *baŋ
*paŋ, *pʰaŋs
*paŋ
*paŋ
*paŋ
*paŋ, *baŋ
*paŋ, *baŋ
*paŋ
*paŋʔ
*paŋʔ
*paŋʔ, *paŋs
*paŋʔ
*pʰaŋ
*pʰaŋ
*pʰaŋ, *pʰaŋs
*pʰaŋʔ
仿 *pʰaŋʔ
*pʰaŋʔ
*pʰaŋʔ
*pʰaŋs
*baŋ, *baŋs
*baŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + (sword)blade; tip of a blade. Original form of (OC *maːŋ, *maŋ, “awn (of cereal); tip (of blade)”); later borrowed to mean “side”. Other theories regarding the origin of this character also exist.

It is unrelated to (“fluttering flag”), from which characters like (OC *ɡɯ, “flag”) and (OC *ɡ·raʔ, “troops”) are derived.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hng, png - vernacular;
  • hong - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (3) (1)
Final () (106) (106)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bʉɐŋ/ /pʉɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/bʷiɐŋ/ /pʷiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/biuɑŋ/ /piuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buaŋ/ /puaŋ/
Li
Rong
/biuaŋ/ /piuaŋ/
Wang
Li
/bĭwaŋ/ /pĭwaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱiwaŋ/ /piwaŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fáng fāng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fāng fāng fāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjang › ‹ pjang › ‹ pjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*C-paŋ/ /*paŋ/ /*paŋ/
English square method just, then

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 3023 3056
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paŋ/ /*baŋ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. parallel; side by side
  2. parallel boats
  3. raft made of bamboo
  4. to match; to be equal to
  5. to compare; to set side by side
  6. to differentiate; to discriminate
  7. to occupy; to take up
  8. (mathematics) square; rectangle; cube
  9. side; aspect; party
      ―  fāngmiàn  ―  aspect; side
  10. place; region; locality
  11. orientation; direction
  12. all sides; all directions
  13. law; rule; reason
  14. method; way
  15. sort; category; kind
  16. moral principle and knowledge; learning
  17. earth; solid earth; ground
  18. (traditional Chinese medicine) prescription
  19. (mathematics) power
    • 238  ―  2 de 3 cìfāng shì 8.  ―  2 to the third power is 8.
  20. (mathematics) Short for 平方米 (píngfāngmǐ, “Classifier for square metre.”).
  21. (mathematics) Short for 立方米 (lìfāngmǐ, “Classifier for cubic metre.”).
  22. circumference; perimeter
  23. upright; honest; irreproachable
  24. just; just when; at the time when; just now; now
  25. just; only
  26. at (a specific time)
  27. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. direction
  2. person
  3. alternative

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ほう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (pjang).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ほう, romaji , historical hiragana はう)

  1. direction, way, side
  2. moreso (preceded by ~の, often followed by ~が)
    この時計 (とけい) (ほう)がそのより (たか)いです。
    Kono tokei no ga sono yori takai desu.
    This watch is more expensive than that [one].

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かた
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana かた, romaji kata)

  1. (polite) person
    あの (かた)
    Ano kata.
    That person. (polite)
    あの (かた)はどなたですか。
    Ano kata wa donata desu ka.
    Who is that gentleman? (formal)
Synonyms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana かた, romaji -kata)

  1. way, method (of doing)

Etymology 3[edit]

pe > ɸe > we > e.

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -e, historical hiragana )

  1. a suffix expressing location, direction, or time
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
さま
Grade: 2
Irregular

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さま, romaji sama)

  1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
  2. the state or situation of a thing
  3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
  4. one's social station, status, or quality
  5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
  6. the reason or circumstances for something

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bang)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: bang, McCune-Reischauer: pang, Yale: pang)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phương, vuông, quách)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.