kind

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See also: Kind and -kind

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has articles on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: kīnd, IPA(key): /kaɪnd/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -aɪnd

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English kynde, kunde, cunde, icunde, from Old English cynd (generation, kind, nature, race), ġecynd, from Proto-Germanic *kundiz, *gakundiz, related to *kunją. Cognate with Icelandic kind (race, species, kind). Doublet of gens, genesis, and jati. See also kin.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

kind (plural kinds)

  1. A type, race or category; a group of entities that have common characteristics such that they may be grouped together.
    What kind of a person are you?
    This is a strange kind of tobacco.
    • 1590, Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Qveene. [], London: [] [John Wolfe] for VVilliam Ponsonbie, OCLC 960102938, book III, canto V, stanza 1:
      How diversely Love doth his pageants play, / And shews his powre in variable kinds !
    • 1922, Ben Travers, chapter 1, in A Cuckoo in the Nest[1]:
      “[…] the awfully hearty sort of Christmas cards that people do send to other people that they don't know at all well. You know. The kind that have mottoes like
        Here's rattling good luck and roaring good cheer, / With lashings of food and great hogsheads of beer. […]
    • 2022, James Dominic Rooney, Material Objects in Confucian and Aristotelian Metaphysics, page 166:
      That in virtue of which all of his material parts are of the same kind human being is what makes those parts belong to Hook, but Hook is neither identical with his kind (the essence of human being), nor is Hook merely that which makes him a member of the kind or all his parts human (his soul).
  2. A makeshift or otherwise atypical specimen.
    The opening served as a kind of window.
    • 1884, Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII
      I got my traps out of the canoe and made me a nice camp in the thick woods. I made a kind of a tent out of my blankets to put my things under so the rain couldn't get at them.
  3. (archaic) One's inherent nature; character, natural disposition.
    • 1533, Thomas More, The second parte of the confutacion of Tyndals answere in whyche is also confuted the chyrche that Tyndale deuyseth:
      Must yt nedes folowe that theyr fayth was chaunged in kynde, bycause yt was augmented in degrees.
    • 1551, Thomas Wilson, The rule of reason, conteinyng the arte of logique:
      The generall woorde, is spoken of many, that differ either in kynd, or els in nombre.
    • 1665, Robert Boyle, Occasional Reflections upon Several Subjects. Whereto is premis'd a Discourse about such kind of thoughts:
      'Tis all one..whether our Afflictions be the same with those of others, in Kind, or not Superiour to them in Degree.
    • 2002, D. DeGrazia, Animal Rights:
      He also argued powerfully, if less influentially, that animals' and humans' capacities differ largely in degree and not in kind.
  4. (archaic) Family, lineage.
    • "She Moved through the Fair" (traditional Irish folk song)
      My young love said to me, My mother won’t mind
      And my father won’t slight you for your lack of kind.
  5. (archaic) Manner.
  6. Goods or services used as payment, as e.g. in barter.
    • 1691, John Dryden, Prologue to King Arthur
      Some of you, on pure instinct of nature, / Are led by kind t'admire your fellow-creature.
  7. Equivalent means used as response to an action.
    I'll pay in kind for his insult.
  8. (Christianity) Each of the two elements of the communion service, bread and wine.
Usage notes[edit]

In sense “goods or services” or “equivalent means”, used almost exclusively with “in” in expression in kind.

Synonyms[edit]
The terms below need to be checked and allocated to the definitions (senses) of the headword above. Each term should appear in the sense for which it is appropriate. For synonyms and antonyms you may use the templates {{syn|en|...}} or {{ant|en|...}}.

(1) and/or (2)

Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English kinde, kunde, kende, from Old English cynde, ġecynde (innate, natural, native), from Old English cynd, ġecynd (nature, kind).

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

kind (comparative kinder, superlative kindest)

  1. Having a benevolent, courteous, friendly, generous, gentle, liberal, sympathetic, or warm-hearted nature or disposition, marked by consideration for – and service to – others.
  2. Affectionate.
    a kind man; a kind heart
  3. Favorable.
  4. Mild, gentle, forgiving
    The years have been kind to Richard Gere; he ages well.
  5. Gentle; tractable; easily governed.
    a horse kind in harness
  6. (obsolete) Characteristic of the species; belonging to one's nature; natural; native.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
terms derived from kind (adjective)
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Dutch kind, from Middle Dutch kint, from Old Dutch kint, from Proto-Germanic *kindą (offspring), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁tóm.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kind (plural kinders)

  1. child

Anagrams[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse kinn, from Proto-Germanic *kinnuz, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵénu- (cheek). Compare Swedish kind, Norwegian and Icelandic kinn, Low German and German Kinn, Dutch kin, English chin.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kind c (singular definite kinden, plural indefinite kinder)

  1. cheek

Inflection[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch kint, from Old Dutch kint, from Proto-West Germanic *kind (offspring), from Proto-Germanic *kindą (offspring), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁tóm (that which is produced, that which is given birth to), related to *ǵn̥h₁tós (produced, given birth), from *ǵenh₁- (to produce, to give birth).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kind n (plural kinderen or kinders, diminutive kindje n or kindertje n or kindeken n or kindelijn n)

  1. child, kid, non-adult human
    Lieve kinderen, wij missen jullie. (typical paedagogical window message during COVID-19 measures)
    Dear children, we miss you.
  2. first-degree descendant, still a minor or irrespective of age
    In sommige patriarchale tradities blijven kinderen levenslang onvoorwaardelijk onderworpen aan het vaderlijk gezag, zoals aanvankelijk in het Oude Rome, in andere houdt een zoon op kind te zijn door zijn eigen gezin te stichten
    In certain patriarchal traditions, children remain subject to unconditional paternal authority for life, as originally in Ancient Rome, in other ones a son ceases to be a child by founding his own family
    Synonyms: afstammeling, nakomeling, telg
  3. (figuratively) product of influence, breeding etc.

Usage notes[edit]

  • The normal plural is kinderen (a double plural combining the endings -er (archaic) and -en, also found in a few other neuter nouns). The form kinders is heard colloquially, often also humorously.
  • In compounds, the word can take the form kinder- or kind- as a tail. The former is used more often, however.
  • The dimunitive kindelijn is now archaic, but can still be found in some fossilized songs and religious texts.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: kind
  • Jersey Dutch: känt
  • Negerhollands: kind, kint, kin, ken
  • Skepi Creole Dutch: kente, kinte

Icelandic[edit]

Icelandic Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia is

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse kind, from Proto-Germanic *kinþiz, cognate with Latin gēns (clan, tribe). The sense of “sheep” is derived from the compound sauðkind, literally “sheep-kind”.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kind f (genitive singular kindar, nominative plural kindur or kindir)

  1. (obsolete) race, kind, kin
  2. a sheep (especially a ewe)
  3. (dated) used as a term of disparagement for a girl (or woman)

Declension[edit]

Standard declension:

Alternative declension, used primarily with "race, kind, kin":

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse kind f, from Proto-Germanic *kinþiz, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵénh₁tis. Akin to English kind.

Noun[edit]

kind m (definite singular kinden, indefinite plural kindar, definite plural kindane)
kind n (definite singular kindet, indefinite plural kind, definite plural kinda)

  1. a child in a cradle

References[edit]


Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *kinþiz. Compare Latin gēns (clan, tribe).

Noun[edit]

kind f (genitive kindar, plural kindir or kindr)

  1. race, kind, kin
  2. creature, being

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • kind in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *kind (child).

Noun[edit]

kind n

  1. child

Declension[edit]



Descendants[edit]


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse kinn, from Proto-Germanic *kinnuz, from Proto-Indo-European *ǵénu- (cheek). Compare Danish kind, Norwegian and Icelandic kinn, German Kinn, Dutch kin, English chin.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kind c

  1. (anatomy) cheek; a part of the face.

Declension[edit]

Declension of kind 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative kind kinden kinder kinderna
Genitive kinds kindens kinders kindernas

Usage notes[edit]

False friend with chin, see haka.


Zealandic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch kint

Noun[edit]

kind n (plural kinders)

  1. child