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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]

  • *ǵḗnus, *ǵḗnus ~ *ǵénw-[1]


*ǵénus f[2][3]

  1. cheek
  2. jaw
  3. chin


Athematic, amphikinetic
nominative *ǵénus
genitive *ǵn̥wés
singular dual plural
nominative *ǵénus *ǵénuh₁(e) *ǵénewes
vocative *ǵénu *ǵénuh₁(e) *ǵénewes
accusative *ǵénum *ǵénuh₁(e) *ǵénums
genitive *ǵn̥wés *? *ǵn̥wóHom
ablative *ǵn̥wés *? *ǵnumós
dative *ǵn̥wéy *? *ǵnumós
locative *ǵnéw, *ǵnéwi *? *ǵnusú
instrumental *ǵn̥wéh₁ *? *ǵnumís

Related terms[edit]

  • *ǵónh₂dʰ(h₁)os ~ *ǵn̥h₂dʰ(h₁)-?
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
    • Proto-Hellenic:
      • >? Ancient Greek: γνάθος (gnáthos) (see there for further descendants)


  • Proto-Armenian:
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic:
  • Proto-Celtic: *genus (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *kinnuz (with geminate *nn of uncertain origin; perhaps < *ǵenw-ú-s?) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *génus
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *ȷ́ʰánuš (with unexplained aspiration of ) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *genā f
    • Latin: gena (cheek(bone)) (see there for further descendants)
  • Phrygian: ἀζήν (azḗn, beard)
  • Proto-Tocharian: *ćänu
    • Tocharian A: śanwem du (jaws)


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN