Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/ǵenh₁-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*ǵenh₁- (perfective)[1][2]

  1. to produce, to beget, to give birth

Derived terms[edit]

  • *ǵénh₁-ti (root present)
    • Proto-Celtic: *gniyeti (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *ȷ́ánati
      • Proto-Indo-Aryan: *ȷ́ánati
        • Sanskrit: जनति (jánati) (see there for further descendants)
      • Proto-Iranian: *jánati [3]
        • Central Iranian:
        • Northeastern Iranian:
          • Ossetian: (to bear, bring forth [usually of animals]; to be born, grow)
            Digor: зайин (zajin)
            Iron: зайун (zajun)
          • Sogdo-Bactrian:
            • Bactrian: ζαδο (zado, born (ppp))
            • Khwarezmian: [script needed] (zʼd, born (ppp))
            • Sogdian: (/zan-/)
              Manichaean: [Manichaean needed] (zn)
              Sogdian: [script needed] (zn)
              Syriac: ܙܢ(zn)
            • Yagnobi: зан- (zan-, bear, give birth; to be born), за́нта (zánta)
        • Southeastern Iranian:
          • Pashto: زوول(zōwul, to give birth to, to bear, to bring forth)
        • Northwestern Iranian:
          • Baluchi: زات(zát), زای(zá(y)-)
          • Kurdish:
            Central Kurdish: زان(zan), -زێ-(-zê-)
            Northern Kurdish: zayîn, zan, -zê-
          • Proto-Medo-Parthian: [Term?]
            • Caspian:
              • Gilaki: [script needed] (zaan), زاج(zāj-)
            • Parthian: (/zāy-, zāyad/, to give birth to; be born) [4]
              Manichaean: [Manichaean needed] (zʾy-) , [script needed] (zʼyd)
            • Proto-Zaza-Gorani: [Term?]
        • Southwestern Iranian:
          • Middle Persian: (/zādan, zāy-/, to bear, give birth to; engender, be born, come forth); [Term?] (/zāyēnīdan, zāyēn-/, to bear, give birth to)
            Book Pahlavi: [Book Pahlavi needed] (Y̠LYDWNtn'), [script needed] (zʾtn'), [script needed] (zʼ-)
            Manichaean: [Manichaean needed] (zʾd), [script needed] (zʾy-); [script needed] (zʾyn-) [5]
  • *ǵn̥h₁-yé-tor (deponent ye-present)
  • *ǵénh₁-ye-tor (deponent ye-present)
  • *ǵí-ǵn̥h₁-e-ti (reduplicated thematic present)
  • *ǵn̥h₁-sḱé-ti (sḱe-present)
  • *ǵénh₁-mn̥ ~ *ǵn̥h₁-mén-s (seed, offspring)
  • *ǵónh₁-o-s
  • *ǵonh₁-éh₂
  • *ǵénh₁-os ~ *ǵénh₁-es-os (race, lineage)
  • *ǵenh₁-es-eh₂
  • *ǵénh₁-ti-s ~ *ǵn̥h₁-téy-s (birth, production)
  • *ǵn̥h₁-tó-s (produced, begotten)
  • *ǵénh₁-tōr ~ *ǵn̥h₁-tr-és (parent)
  • *ǵénh₁-tr-ih₂ ~ *ǵénh₁-tr-yeh₂-es (parent)
  • *ǵn̥h₁-yo-
    • Proto-Germanic: *kunją (kin, family)
    • Proto-Italic: [Term?]
  • *ǵn̥h₁-i-wo-
  • *ǵenh₁-tl-eh₂
  • *ǵenh₁-dʰl-
  • *pro-ǵenh₁-ti-eh₂
    • Proto-Iranian: *frazanti- (offspring, progeny) [6]
      • Central Iranian:
      • Northeastern Iranian:
        • Sogdo-Bacterian:
          • Bactrian: φροζινδο (frozindo, descendant), φοροζινδο (forozindo)
          • Sogdian: (/fsāndē/, child) (from *frazantaka) [7]
            Sogdian: [script needed] (βsʾntʾk), [script needed] (βsʾntk)
      • Southeastern Iranian:
        • Proto-Shughni-Roshani: [Term?] (daughter)
          • Sarikoli: [script needed] (rajen)
          • Shughni: [script needed] (rizīn)
            • Bartangi-Oroshori: [Term?]
              • Bartangi: [script needed] (razen)
              • Oroshori: [script needed] (rizīn)
            • Roshani-Khufi: [Term?]
              • Khufi: [script needed] (rizoen)
              • Roshani: [script needed] (rizēn)
      • Northwestern Iranian:
        • Parthian: (/frazand/, child, son)
          Parthian: [script needed] (frzynd)
      • Southwestern Iranian:
        • Middle Persian: (/frazand/, child, son)
          Book Pahlavi: [Book Pahlavi needed] (prznd), [script needed] (prẕnd)
          Manichaean: [Manichaean needed] (frzynd), [script needed] (przynd)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Germanic: *knōslą (see there for further descendants)
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: γνωτός (gnōtós, kinsman)
      • Ancient Greek: γέννα (génna, descent, origin, race, genus; birth) (see there for further descendants)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indo-Aryan:
        • Sanskrit: (ja, já, son of; father; birth)
        • Sanskrit: जा (jā́, race, tribe)
        • Sanskrit: जान (jā́na, birth, origin, birthplace)
        • Sanskrit: जना (janā, birth, origin)
        • Sanskrit: जनि (jáni, birth, production, birthplace)
        • Sanskrit: जननी (jananī, mother)
        • Sanskrit: जन्तु (jantú, offspring, kinsman)
        • Sanskrit: ज्ञाति (jñātí, kinsman)
        • Sanskrit: जन्यु (janyu, birth, creature)
        • Sanskrit: जन्य (jánya, janyá, people, community, nation)
        • Sanskrit: जनुस् (janús, janū́s, birth, production, descent, nativity; genus, class, kind)
          • Sanskrit: जनुषा (januṣā, necessarily, essentially, originally, by birth)
          • Sanskrit: जनू (janū́, birth, descent)
        • Sanskrit: जेन्य (jénya, of noble origin; genuine)
        • Sanskrit: जातु (jā́tu, jātú, at all, ever, perhaps)
        • Sanskrit: जात्य (jā́tya, legitimate; of a good family)
        • Sanskrit: जनता (janátā, people, folk; generation)
        • Sanskrit: जनन (jánana, progenitor, production, birth, race)
        • Sanskrit: जज्ञि (jájñi, germinating, shooting; seed)
        • Sanskrit: जन्मिन् (janmin, creature)
        • Sanskrit: जानुका (jā́nukā, bringing forth; woman)
        • Sanskrit: जाया (jāyā́, bringing forth)
        • Sanskrit: जावन् (jā́van, born, produced)
      • Proto-Iranian: [Term?]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  2. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[2], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  3. ^ Johnny Cheung (2007);Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb; V:II; ISBN:978-90-04-15496-4; pp: 465-466.
  4. ^ Desmond Durkin-Meisteremst (2004); Dictionaroy Of Manichaeain Texts, Part I; ISBN:2-503-5 1776; p: 380.
  5. ^ Desmond Durkin-Meisteremst (2004); Dictionaroy Of Manichaeain Texts, Part I; ISBN:2-503-5 1776; p: 380.
  6. ^ Johnny Cheung (2007);Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb; V:II; ISBN:978-90-04-15496-4; pp: 465-466.
  7. ^ Gharib, B. (1995), “βsʾntʾk”, in Sogdian dictionary: Sogdian–Persian–English, Tehran: Farhangan Publications, page 112