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U+751F, 生
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-751F

[U+751E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7520]
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
生-order.gif
Japanese
stroke order
生-jorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 100 +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹手一 (HQM), four-corner 25100, composition𠂉)

  1. Kangxi radical #100, (life).

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 754, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1162, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2575, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+751F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
生-oracle.svg 生-bronze.svg 生-bigseal.svg 生-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (bud) + (ground)sprouting from the ground.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ(to live; to be alive; to give birth; raw; green). Cognate with Burmese ရှင်(hrang, to live; alive), Mizo hring(to bear; to bring forth; to give birth to; green).

Schuessler (2007) proposes that Proto-Sino-Tibetan *sriŋ is derived from the root *sri(to exist) (whence possibly Chinese (OC *r̥ʰiːʔ, “body; shape; form”)) + *-ŋ(terminative suffix).

Both level tone and falling tone readings are found in Middle Chinese, but the latter has since been lost and is merged into the level-tone reading in modern dialects.

Related to (OC *sʰleːŋ, “blue-green”), (OC *sʰaːŋ, *sʰaːŋʔ, “dark blue; deep green”).

Derivatives: (OC *sleŋs, “nature; character; personality; quality”), (OC *sleŋs, “family name”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • saang1 - vernacular;
  • sang1 - literary.
Note:
  • sâng - vernacular;
  • sên - literary.
Note:
  • sng/seng - literary;
  • siⁿ/seⁿ/chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - vernacular.
Note:
  • 1san - vernacular;
  • 1sen - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂəŋ⁴/
Tianjin /səŋ²¹/
Jinan /ʂəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /səŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /səŋ²¹/
Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
Kunming /sə̃/
Nanjing /sən³¹/
Hefei /sən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
/ʂʐ̩e̞¹³/
Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sã⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sen³³/
Wenzhou /siɛ³³/
Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
/sɛ³¹/
Tunxi /ɕiɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
/sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴²/
/sɛn⁴²/ ~意
Hakka Meixian /saŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sɑŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐŋ⁵³/
/saŋ⁵³/
Nanning /saŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
/sĩ⁵⁵/ ~死
/t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/ ~肉
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/ 學~
/t͡sʰaŋ⁵⁴/ ~熟
Shantou (Min Nan) /seŋ³³/
/sẽ³³/
/t͡sʰẽ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ²³/
/sɔŋ²³/
/tɛ²³/ ~活
/sɛ²³/ 不熟

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (21) (21)
Final () (109) (109)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠæŋ/ /ʃˠæŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚaŋ/ /ʃᵚaŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃaŋ/ /ʃaŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋH/
Li
Rong
/ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
Wang
Li
/ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēng shèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shēng shēng shēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sræng › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?)
English bear, be born; live fresh, raw bear, be born; live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11312 11322
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰleːŋ/ /*sreŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to live; to subsist; to exist
  2. to grow; to develop; to bud
    • 紅豆 / 红豆  ―  Hóngdòu shēng nán guó.  ―  Red berries grow in southern lands.
  3. (causative) to bear; to give birth; to bring up; to rear
  4. to be born; to come into existence
  5. offspring; descendant
  6. pupil; disciple; student
  7. (historical) scholar; Confucian scholar
  8. (opera) actor or male character
  9. Short for 先生 (xiānshēng, “gentleman”).
  10. (Cantonese) Short for 先生 (xiānshēng, “Mr.”).
    • / [Cantonese]  ―  can4 saang1 [Jyutping]  ―  Mr. Chan
  11. life; existence; being; living
  12. fresh; not stale
  13. raw; uncooked
  14. uncultured; uncultivated
  15. strange; unfamiliar
  16. mechanically; forcedly
  17. very; quite; extremely
  18. vivid; strong; forceful
  19. innate; natural; born with
  20. Original form of (xìng, “intelligence; natural endowment”).
  21. living things; organism
  22. livelihood; subsistence
  23. lifetime; all one's life
  24. birthday; anniversary
  25. to bring back to life; to revive; to rescue
  26. to generate; to breed; to create
  27. to manufacture; to produce
  28. to happen; to occur; to take place
  29. (Buddhism) to go into society; to be reincarnated
  30. (dialectal) to set up; to put in; to settle
  31. to light; to ignite (a fire)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese stroke order
生-jbw.png
Japanese
stroke order
生-jorder.gif

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

Kanji in this term
なま
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

‎(hiragana なま, romaji nama)

  1. raw
     (なま) (たまご)
    nama tamago
    a raw egg
     (にく) (なま)のまま ()べると、 (はら) (こわ)すことがある。
    Niku o nama no mama taberu to, hara o kowasu koto ga aru.
    You may have a stomachache if you eat raw meat.
  2. fresh, draft
     (なま)クリーム
    nama kurīmu
    fresh cream
     (なま)ビール
    nama bīru
    draft beer

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana なま, romaji nama-)

  1. live
  2. raw, uncooked, rare
  3. natural, unprocessed

Suffix[edit]

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
on'yomi

‎(hiragana せい, romaji -sei)

  1. a student
    中学 (ちゅうがく) (せい)大学 (だいがく) (せい)受験 (じゅけん) (せい)
    chūgakusei, daigakusei, jukensei
    middle-school student, university student, test-taking student → examinee

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(saeng)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: saeng, Yale: sayng)
  • Name (hangeul): 나다 (revised: nada, McCune-Reischauer: nada, Yale: nata)

Middle Korean ᄉᆡᆼ, IPA pronunciation estimate is Sʌiŋ.

  1. fresh

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(sinh, sanh, siêng, xênh, xinh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]