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U+751F, 生
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-751F

[U+751E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7520]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order (Chinese)
5 strokes
Stroke order
(Chinese)
生-order.gif
Stroke order
(Japan)
生-jorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 100, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹手一 (HQM), four-corner 25100, composition𠂉)

  1. Kangxi radical #100, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №215

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


  • KangXi: page 754, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1162, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2575, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+751F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𤯓

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
生-oracle.svg 生-bronze.svg 生-seal.svg 生-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (bud) +  (ground)sprouting from the ground.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ (to live; to be alive; to give birth; raw; green). Cognate with Burmese ရှင် (hrang, to live; alive), Mizo hring (to bear; to bring forth; to give birth to; green).

Schuessler (2007) proposes that Proto-Sino-Tibetan *sriŋ is derived from the root *sri (to exist) (whence possibly Chinese (OC *r̥ʰiːʔ, “body; shape; form”)) + *-ŋ (terminative suffix).

Both level tone and falling tone readings are found in Middle Chinese, but the latter has since been lost and is merged into the level-tone reading in modern dialects.

Related to (OC *sʰleːŋ, “blue-green”), (OC *sʰaːŋ, *sʰaːŋʔ, “dark blue; deep green”).

Derivatives: (OC *sleŋs, “nature; character; personality; quality”), (OC *sleŋs, “family name”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • saang1 - colloquial;
  • sang1 - literary.
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • sang1 - colloquial;
    • sen1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • Sixian:
      • sâng - colloquial;
      • sên - literary.
    • Meixian:
      • sang1 - colloquial;
      • sên1 - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • sáng, cháng - colloquial;
    • sáing - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • săng - colloquial;
    • chăng - colloquial (“raw”);
    • sĕng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • siⁿ/seⁿ - colloquial;
    • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - colloquial (“raw”);
    • seng/sng - literary.
    Note:
    • sên1 - colloquial;
    • cên1 - colloquial (“raw”);
    • sêng1 - literary (“student”).
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 1san - colloquial;
    • 1sen - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂəŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂəŋ⁴/
    Tianjin /səŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ʂəŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /səŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /səŋ²¹/
    Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
    Kunming /sə̃/
    Nanjing /sən³¹/
    Hefei /sən²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
    /ʂʐ̩e̞¹³/
    Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /sã⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sen³³/
    Wenzhou /siɛ³³/
    Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
    /sɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /ɕiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
    Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
    /sən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴²/
    /sɛn⁴²/ ~意
    Hakka Meixian /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐŋ⁵³/
    /saŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐŋ⁵⁵/
    /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
    /sĩ⁵⁵/ ~死
    /t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/ ~肉
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/ 學~
    /t͡sʰaŋ⁵⁴/ ~熟
    Shantou (Min Nan) /seŋ³³/
    /sẽ³³/
    /t͡sʰẽ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ²³/
    /sɔŋ²³/
    /tɛ²³/ ~活
    /sɛ²³/ 不熟

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (21) (21)
    Final () (109) (109)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠæŋ/ /ʃˠæŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚaŋ/ /ʃᵚaŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃaŋ/ /ʃaŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shēng shèng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shēng shēng shēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sræng › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?)
    English bear, be born; live fresh, raw bear, be born; live

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 11312 11322
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰleːŋ/ /*sreŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to live; to subsist; to exist
    2. to grow; to develop; to bud
    3. (causative) to bear; to give birth; to bring up; to rear
      妻子雙胞胎女孩 [MSC, trad.]
      妻子双胞胎女孩 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā qīzǐ shēng le yī duì shuāngbāotāi nǚhái. [Pinyin]
      His wife gave birth to twin girls.
    4. to be born; to come into existence
      中國 / 中国  ―  shēng zài zhōngguó.  ―  He was born in China.
    5. offspring; descendant
    6. pupil; disciple; student
      作為全日制必須定期上課 [MSC, trad.]
      作为全日制必须定期上课 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ zuòwèi quánrìzhì shēng bìxū dìngqī shàngkè. [Pinyin]
      As a full-time student, you should attend classes on a regular basis.
    7. (historical) scholar; Confucian scholar
    8. (opera) actor or male character
    9. Short for 先生 (xiānsheng, “gentleman”).
    10. (Cantonese) Short for 先生 (xiānsheng, “Mr.”).
      / [Cantonese]  ―  can4 saang1 [Jyutping]  ―  Mr. Chan
    11. life; existence; being; living
      /   ―  shāshēng  ―  to destroy a life
    12. fresh; not stale
    13. unripe
    14. raw; uncooked
      Antonym: (shú)
      洋蔥 / 洋葱  ―  shēng yángcōng  ―  raw onions
      覺得仲係 [Cantonese, trad.]
      觉得仲系 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Ngo5 gok3 dak1 ni1 faai3 juk6 zung6 hai6 taai3 saang1. [Jyutping]
      I think this piece of meat is too raw.
    15. (historical ethnography) uncultured; uncultivated; wild; uncivilized; savage
        ―  shēng  ―  wild Li
    16. strange; unfamiliar
        ―  shēngrén  ―  stranger
    17. mechanically; forcedly
    18. very; quite; extremely
    19. vivid; strong; forceful
    20. innate; natural; born with
    21. Original form of (xìng, “intelligence; natural endowment”).
    22. living things; organism
    23. livelihood; subsistence
      /   ―  móushēng  ―  to make a living
    24. lifetime; all one's life
      /   ―  láishēng  ―  afterlife
    25. birthday; anniversary
      /   ―  qìngshēng  ―  to celebrate one's birthday
    26. to bring back to life; to revive; to rescue
    27. to generate; to breed; to create
    28. to manufacture; to produce
    29. to happen; to occur; to take place
    30. to catch (a disease)
      什麼 / 什么  ―  shēng le shénme bìng?  ―  What disease have I got?
      [Min Nan]  ―  seⁿ-chôa [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to have shingles
    31. (transitive) to be infested by a parasite
      跳蚤  ―  shēng tiàozǎo  ―  to be infested with fleas
      蝨乸 / 虱乸 [Cantonese]  ―  saang1 sat1 naa2 [Jyutping]  ―  to be infested with lice
    32. (Buddhism) to go into society; to be reincarnated
    33. (dialectal) to set up; to put in; to settle
    34. to light; to ignite (a fire)
      母親爐子 / 母亲炉子  ―  Mǔqīn méi yǒu shēng lúzi.  ―  Mother did not light the stove.
    35. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しょう) (shō); (せい) (sei)
    • Korean: (, saeng)
    • Vietnamese: sinh (), sanh ()

    Japanese[edit]

    Stroke order (Japan)
    5 strokes
    Stroke order
    (Japan)
    生-jorder.gif

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Numerous derivatives already in use in the Heian period.[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (なま) (nama

    1. a raw, uncooked state
      (にく)(なま)のまま()べると、(はら)(こわ)すことがある。
      Niku o nama no mama taberu to, hara o kowasu koto ga aru.
      You may have a stomachache if you eat raw meat.
    2. Short for 生ビール (draft beer).

    Prefix[edit]

    (なま) (nama-

    1. (broadcasting) live
      (なま)演奏(えんそう)
      namaensō
      live performance
    2. fresh, draft
      (なま)クリーム
      nama kurīmu
      fresh cream
      (なま)ビール
      nama bīru
      draft beer
    3. raw, uncooked, rare
      (なま)(たまご)
      nama tamago
      a raw egg
    4. natural, unprocessed

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH, “alive; fresh; raw; unprocessed”).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. a living
      (せい)(いとな)
      sei o itonamu
      make a living
    2. life
      (せい)(よろこ)
      sei no yorokobi
      the joys of life
      Synonym: (inochi)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. (humble) I or me, the first person singular (used by males)

    Suffix[edit]

    (せい) (-sei

    1. a student
      中学(ちゅうがく)(せい)大学(だいがく)(せい)受験(じゅけん)(せい)
      chūgakusei, daigakusei, jukensei
      middle-school student, university student, test-taking student → examinee
    2. (be) born in
      1950(せんきゅうひゃくごじゅう)(ねん)(せい)
      sen-kyūhyaku-gojū-nen sei
      born in 1950
      Antonym: 歿 (botsu) ("died in")

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Likely a contraction from 生き (iki, life, living; freshness).[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ki

    1. purity, a lack of any admixture, a state of being undiluted
      ウィスキーを()()
      wisukī o ki de nomu
      drink whiskey straight

    Prefix[edit]

    () (ki-

    1. unrefined
      ()(いと)
      kiito
      raw silk
    2. pure, undefiled, unadulterated
      ()(むすめ)
      kimusume
      innocent young girl

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH). The 呉音 (goon) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (しょう) (shō

    1. life; lifetime
    Derived terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄉᆡᇰ (Yale: soyng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (nal saeng))

    1. Hanja form? of (raw; uncooked).
    2. Hanja form? of (of life; to be born).
    3. Hanja form? of (to produce).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: sinh[1][2][3][4], sanh (()(canh)(thiết))[3][4]
    : Nôm readings: sanh[1][2][5][4][6][7], siêng[1][3][5][4][6][7], sinh[1][2][3][4][7], xinh[1][2][3][5], xênh[1][3][5], sống[1], xanh[1]

    1. Hán tự form of sinh (to produce; to yield; to give birth to).
    2. Hán tự form of sanh (to be born).
    3. Nôm form of siêng (dilligent; assiduous).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn (2014).]]
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn et al. (2009).]]
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Trần (2004).]]
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Bonet (1899).]]
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Hồ (1976).]]
    6. 6.0 6.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Génibrel (1898).]]
    7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).]]