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See also: and
U+751F, 生
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-751F

[U+751E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7520]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
生-order.gif
Japanese
stroke order
生-jorder.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 100, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹手一 (HQM), four-corner 25100, composition𠂉 or ⿰丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #100, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 754, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1162, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2575, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+751F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
生-oracle.svg 生-bronze.svg 生-seal.svg 生-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (bud) +  (ground)sprouting from the ground.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ (to live; to be alive; to give birth; raw; green). Cognate with Burmese ရှင် (hrang, to live; alive), Mizo hring (to bear; to bring forth; to give birth to; green).

Schuessler (2007) proposes that Proto-Sino-Tibetan *sriŋ is derived from the root *sri (to exist) (whence possibly Chinese (OC *r̥ʰiːʔ, “body; shape; form”)) + *-ŋ (terminative suffix).

Both level tone and falling tone readings are found in Middle Chinese, but the latter has since been lost and is merged into the level-tone reading in modern dialects.

Related to (OC *sʰleːŋ, “blue-green”), (OC *sʰaːŋ, *sʰaːŋʔ, “dark blue; deep green”).

Derivatives: (OC *sleŋs, “nature; character; personality; quality”), (OC *sleŋs, “family name”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • saang1 - colloquial;
  • sang1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • sâng - colloquial;
    • sên - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • sáng, cháng - colloquial;
    • sáing - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • săng - colloquial;
    • chăng - colloquial (“raw”);
    • sĕng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • siⁿ/seⁿ - colloquial;
    • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - colloquial (“raw”);
    • seng/sng - literary.
    Note:
    • sên1 - colloquial;
    • cên1 - colloquial (“raw”);
    • sêng1 - literary (“student”).
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 1san - colloquial;
    • 1sen - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂəŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂəŋ⁴/
    Tianjin /səŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ʂəŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /səŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /səŋ²¹/
    Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
    Kunming /sə̃/
    Nanjing /sən³¹/
    Hefei /sən²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
    /ʂʐ̩e̞¹³/
    Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /sã⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sen³³/
    Wenzhou /siɛ³³/
    Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
    /sɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /ɕiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
    Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
    /sən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴²/
    /sɛn⁴²/ ~意
    Hakka Meixian /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐŋ⁵³/
    /saŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
    /sĩ⁵⁵/ ~死
    /t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/ ~肉
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/ 學~
    /t͡sʰaŋ⁵⁴/ ~熟
    Shantou (Min Nan) /seŋ³³/
    /sẽ³³/
    /t͡sʰẽ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ²³/
    /sɔŋ²³/
    /tɛ²³/ ~活
    /sɛ²³/ 不熟

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (21) (21)
    Final () (109) (109)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠæŋ/ /ʃˠæŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚaŋ/ /ʃᵚaŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃaŋ/ /ʃaŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shēng shèng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shēng shēng shēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sræng › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?)
    English bear, be born; live fresh, raw bear, be born; live

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 11312 11322
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰleːŋ/ /*sreŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to live; to subsist; to exist
    2. to grow; to develop; to bud
    3. (causative) to bear; to give birth; to bring up; to rear
    4. to be born; to come into existence
    5. offspring; descendant
    6. pupil; disciple; student
    7. (historical) scholar; Confucian scholar
    8. (opera) actor or male character
    9. Short for 先生 (xiānshēng, “gentleman”).
    10. (Cantonese) Short for 先生 (xiānshēng, “Mr.”).
      • / [Cantonese]  ―  can4 saang1 [Jyutping]  ―  Mr. Chan
    11. life; existence; being; living
    12. fresh; not stale
    13. raw; uncooked
    14. uncultured; uncultivated
    15. strange; unfamiliar
    16. mechanically; forcedly
    17. very; quite; extremely
    18. vivid; strong; forceful
    19. innate; natural; born with
    20. Original form of (xìng, “intelligence; natural endowment”).
    21. living things; organism
    22. livelihood; subsistence
      /   ―  móushēng  ―  to make a living
    23. lifetime; all one's life
    24. birthday; anniversary
    25. to bring back to life; to revive; to rescue
    26. to generate; to breed; to create
    27. to manufacture; to produce
    28. to happen; to occur; to take place
    29. (Buddhism) to go into society; to be reincarnated
    30. (dialectal) to set up; to put in; to settle
    31. to light; to ignite (a fire)

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Japanese stroke order
    5 strokes
    Japanese
    stroke order
    生-jorder.gif

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Numerous derivatives already in use in the Heian period.[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana なま, rōmaji nama)

    1. a raw, uncooked state
       (にく) (なま)のまま ()べると、 (はら) (こわ)すことがある。
      Niku o nama no mama taberu to, hara o kowasu koto ga aru.
      You may have a stomachache if you eat raw meat.
    2. fresh, draft
    3. Short for 生ビール.

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana なま, rōmaji nama-)

    1. live
       (なま) (えん) (そう)
      namaensō
      live performance
    2. fresh, draft
       (なま)クリーム
      nama kurīmu
      fresh cream
       (なま)ビール
      nama bīru
      draft beer
    3. raw, uncooked, rare
       (なま) (たまご)
      nama tamago
      a raw egg
    4. natural, unprocessed

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH, “alive; fresh; raw; unprocessed”).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji sei)

    1. a living
       (せい) (いとな)
      sei o itonamu
      make a living
    2. life
       (せい) (よろこ)
      sei no yorokobi
      the joys of life
      Synonym:

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. a student
      中学 (ちゅうがく) (せい)大学 (だいがく) (せい) (じゅ) (けん) (せい)
      chūgakusei, daigakusei, jukensei
      middle-school student, university student, test-taking student → examinee
    2. (be) born in
      Lua error: not enough memoryLua error: not enough memory
      Antonyms: Lua error: not enough memory

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    Likely a contraction from Lua error: not enough memory.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    Noun[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. purity, a lack of any admixture, a state of being undiluted
      Lua error: not enough memoryLua error: not enough memory

    Prefix[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. unrefined
      Lua error: not enough memoryLua error: not enough memory
    2. pure, undefiled, unadulterated
      Lua error: not enough memoryLua error: not enough memory

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, Lua error: not enough memory (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory

    Korean[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    Hanja[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. fresh

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory (Lua error: not enough memory)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text Lua error: not enough memory.Lua error: not enough memory

    Compounds[edit]

    • Lua error: not enough memory