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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
長-bw.png
Stroke order
長-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 168 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸一女 (SMV), four-corner 71732)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1328, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1829, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4050, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9577

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – originally long hair; compare .

Unrelated to visually similar , and notably does not have a diagonal stroke at lower left.

Etymology[edit]

Three pronunciations below are cognate, all derived from the original root of (*traŋ, “to make long; to stretch; to string a bow”).

Pronunciation 1 ("long") is the endopassive derivative ("be extended, be stretched"), with intransitive voicing. The lack of Tibeto-Burman cognates with the same meaning indicate that this is a Chinese innovation. Pronunciation 2 ("to grow") is the endoactive derivative.

See for more.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 長 (短)
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰaŋ²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
/t͡suə¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zã¹³/
Suzhou /zã¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑi³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɔŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /tʃʰoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ³⁵/
/tŋ̍³⁵/
/t͡sʰiaŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /touŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaŋ⁵⁵/
/tɯŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /siaŋ³¹/
/ʔdo³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (11)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɖɨɐŋ/ /ȡʱi̯aŋ/ /ȡiaŋ/ /ɖiɐŋ/ /ɖɨaŋ/ /ȡĭaŋ/ /ȡiɑŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
cháng ‹ drjang › /*Cə-[N]-traŋ/ long (adj.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1276 0 /*daŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. long (of distance)
    /   ―  chángzhēng  ―  Long March
  2. length
    /   ―  quáncháng  ―  full length (of a river)
  3. long (in space); far; distant
  4. long (of time); lasting
  5. everlasting; permanent
  6. constantly; frequently
  7. straight; perfectly straight
  8. upright; right; good; fine
  9. strength, advantage, merit
  10. skill, specialism
  11. to excel in
  12. A surname​.

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (9)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʈɨɐŋX/ /ȶi̯aŋX/ /ȶiaŋX/ /ʈiɐŋX/ /ʈɨaŋX/ /ȶĭaŋX/ /ȶiɑŋX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zhǎng ‹ trjangX › /*traŋʔ/ grow; elder

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1263 0 /*taŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to begin to grow; to grow; to develop
    /   ―  zhǎng  ―  to grow old
  2. (of a person) to look; to appear (e.g. beautiful)
  3. (transitive) to increase; to enhance
  4. (intransitive) to increase; to go up
  5. to nourish
  6. old (of age)
    /   ―  niánzhǎng  ―  senior
  7. senior; elder
    /   ―  xiōngzhǎng  ―  elder brother
  8. leader; master; chief; head
  9. eldest, oldest

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (11)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɖɨɐŋH/ /ȡʱi̯aŋH/ /ȡiaŋH/ /ɖiɐŋH/ /ɖɨaŋH/ /ȡĭaŋH/ /ȡiɑŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1280 0 /*daŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (archaic) length; measure of length
  2. (archaic, Min) to be left over; surplus, residue
    今旦 [Min Dong, trad.]
    今旦 [Min Dong, simp.]
    Gĭng-dáng buông diông iā sâ̤ / [kiŋ⁵⁵⁻⁵³ (t-)nɑŋ²¹³ puɔŋ²⁴² tuɔŋ²⁴² ia³³ sɑ²⁴²] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
    There is a lot of leftover food today.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(drjang, long).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ちょう, romaji chō, historical hiragana ちやう)

  1. chief, head, leader

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ひさし, romaji Hisashi)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
おさ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana おさ, romaji osa, historical hiragana をさ)

  1. chief, head, leader

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana なが, romaji naga-)

  1. long

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
つかさ
Grade: 2
Irregular

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つかさ, romaji tsukasa)

  1. a manager, a headman, a foreman
  2. an official
  3. government service

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
たき
Grade: 2
Irregular

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ta̠ki]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana たき, romaji taki)

  1. height

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
たけ
Grade: 2
Irregular

/take2/: [takye] → [take]. Cognate with ‎(taka, height), 高い ‎(takai, high), and 長ける ‎(takeru, to be high).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana たけ, romaji take)

  1. height

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jang)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: chang, Yale: cang)
  • Name (hangeul): 길다 (revised: gilda, McCune-Reischauer: kilda, Yale: kilta)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Character[edit]

Readings[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Lê Sơn Thanh, "Nom-Viet.dat", WinVNKey (details)