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See also:
U+9577, 長
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9577

[U+9576]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9578]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
長-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 168, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸一女 (SMV), four-corner 71732)

  1. Kangxi radical #168, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1328, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1829, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4050, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9577

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
長-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*taŋ, *taŋs
*taŋ
*taŋ
*taŋ, *taŋʔ, *taŋs
*taŋʔ, *daŋ, *daŋs
*taŋs
*taŋs
*taŋs
*taŋs
倀 *tʰaŋ, *rtaːŋs
*tʰaŋ
*tʰaŋʔ
*tʰaŋs
*tʰaŋs
*daŋ
*daŋ, *daŋs
*rdaːŋ
*rdaːŋ

Pictogram (象形) – originally long hair; compare .

Etymology[edit]

Three pronunciations below are cognate, all derived from the original root of (*traŋ, “to make long; to stretch; to string a bow”).

Pronunciation 1 ("long") is the endopassive derivative ("be extended, be stretched"), with intransitive voicing. The lack of Tibeto-Burman cognates with the same meaning indicate that this is a Chinese innovation. Pronunciation 2 ("to grow") is the endoactive derivative.

See for more.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • dòng - colloquial;
  • diòng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    Note:
    • deng5 - colloquial;
    • ciang5 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 長 (短)
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    /t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠¹/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
    /t͡suə¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zã²³/
    Suzhou /zã¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /d͡ʑi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐɔn¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɔŋ²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /tʃʰoŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ³⁵/
    /tŋ̍³⁵/
    /t͡sʰiaŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /touŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaŋ⁵⁵/
    /tɯŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /siaŋ³¹/
    /ʔdo³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡiaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-[N]-traŋ/
    English long (adj.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 1276
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. long (of distance)
      /   ―  chángzhēng  ―  Long March
    2. length
      /   ―  quáncháng  ―  full length (of a river)
    3. long (in space); far; distant
    4. long (of time); lasting
    5. everlasting; permanent
    6. constantly; frequently
    7. straight; perfectly straight
    8. upright; right; good; fine
    9. strength; advantage; merit
    10. skill; specialism
    11. to excel in
    12. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • tióng/tiáng - literary;
    • tiúⁿ/tióⁿ - vernacular ("leader");
    • chiáng - colloquial ("to grow", limited).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhǎng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhǎng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trjangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*traŋʔ/
    English grow; elder

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 1263
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*taŋʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to begin to grow; to grow; to develop
      /   ―  zhǎng  ―  to grow old
    2. (of a person) to look; to appear (e.g. beautiful)
    3. (transitive) to increase; to enhance
    4. (intransitive) to increase; to go up
    5. to nourish
    6. old (of age)
      /   ―  niánzhǎng  ―  senior
    7. senior; elder
      /   ―  xiōngzhǎng  ―  elder brother
    8. leader; master; chief; head
    9. eldest; oldest

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡiaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhàng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 1280
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (archaic) length; measure of length
    2. (archaic, Min) to be left over; surplus, residue
      今旦 [Min Dong, trad.]
      今旦 [Min Dong, simp.]
      Gĭng-dáng buông diông iā sâ̤ / [kiŋ⁵⁵⁻⁵³ (t-)nɑŋ²¹³ puɔŋ²⁴² tuɔŋ²⁴² ia³³ sɑ²⁴²] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
      There is a lot of leftover food today.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (drjang, long).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ちょう, rōmaji chō, historical hiragana ちやう)

    1. chief, head, leader
       (はん) (ちょう)
      han chō
      the group leader
    2. strong point
       (ちょう ) ( の)ばす
      chō o nobasu
      enrich a strong point
    3. (music) major

    Antonyms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (hiragana ひさし, rōmaji Hisashi)

    1. A male given name

    (hiragana たける, rōmaji Takeru)

    1. A male given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おさ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おさ, rōmaji osa, historical hiragana をさ)

    1. chief, head, leader

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なが
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (hiragana なが, rōmaji naga-)

    1. long

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つかさ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana つかさ, rōmaji tsukasa)

    1. a manager, a headman, a foreman
    2. an official
    3. government service

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たき
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana たき, rōmaji taki)

    1. height

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たけ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    /take2/: [takye] → [take]. Cognate with (taka, height), 高い (takai, high), and 長ける (takeru, to be high).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana たけ, rōmaji take)

    1. height

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (jang)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (McCune–Reischauer: chang, Yale: cang)
      • Name (hangeul): 길다 (revised: gilda, McCune–Reischauer: kilda, Yale: kilta)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Character[edit]

    Readings[edit]

    References[edit]

    • Nom Foundation
    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Lê Sơn Thanh, "Nom-Viet.dat", WinVNKey (details)