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U+9577, 長
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9577

[U+9576]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9578]
U+2ED1, ⻑
CJK RADICAL LONG ONE

[U+2ED0]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2ED2]
U+2FA7, ⾧
KANGXI RADICAL LONG

[U+2FA6]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA8]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
長-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 168, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸一女 (SMV), four-corner 71732, composition ⿱⿺𠄌丿(GJKV) or ⿸⿱⿺𠄌丿(HT) or ⿱⿰⿸⿱𠄌丿(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #168, .

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1328, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1829, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4050, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9577

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
長-oracle.svg 長-bronze.svg 長-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – originally long hair; compare .

Etymology[edit]

Three pronunciations below are cognate, all derived from the original root of (*traŋ, “to make long; to stretch; to string a bow”).

Pronunciation 1 ("long") is the endopassive derivative ("be extended, be stretched"), with intransitive voicing. The lack of Tibeto-Burman cognates with the same meaning indicate that this is a Chinese innovation. Pronunciation 2 ("to grow") is the endoactive derivative. The different pronunciations are one of the few instances of contemporary grammatical tone in Mandarin.

See for more.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • dòng - colloquial;
  • diòng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    Note:
    • deng5 - colloquial;
    • ciang5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 長 (短)
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    /t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰaŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰaŋ²¹/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠¹/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
    /t͡suə¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zã²³/
    Suzhou /zã¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /d͡ʑi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐɔn¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɔŋ²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /tʃʰoŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ³⁵/
    /tŋ̍³⁵/
    /t͡sʰiaŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /touŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaŋ⁵⁵/
    /tɯŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /siaŋ³¹/
    /ʔdo³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡiaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    coeng4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-[N]-traŋ/
    English long (adj.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    No. 1276
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. long (of distance)
      /   ―  chángzhēng  ―  Long March
    2. length
      /   ―  quáncháng  ―  full length (of a river)
    3. long (in space); far; distant
    4. long (of time); lasting
    5. everlasting; permanent
    6. constantly; frequently
      See also:
    7. straight; perfectly straight
    8. upright; right; good; fine
    9. strength; advantage; merit
    10. skill; specialism
    11. to excel in
    12. A surname.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • tióng/tiáng - literary;
    • tiúⁿ/tióⁿ - vernacular ("leader");
    • chiáng - colloquial ("to grow", limited).
    Note:
    • ziang2 - "leader", "grow", "senior";
    • dion2 - dialectal usage ("manager of shops").
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/3
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhǎng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zoeng2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhǎng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trjangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*traŋʔ/
    English grow; elder

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    No. 1263
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*taŋʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to begin to grow; to grow; to develop
      /   ―  zhǎng  ―  to grow old
      健康 [MSC, trad.]
      健康 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ jiā de shù zhǎng dé hěn jiànkāng. [Pinyin]
      The tree in my house is growing healthily.
    2. (of a person) to look; to appear (e.g. beautiful)
    3. (transitive) to increase; to enhance
    4. (intransitive) to increase; to go up
      See also:
    5. to nourish
    6. old (of age)
      /   ―  niánzhǎng  ―  senior
    7. senior; elder
      /   ―  xiōngzhǎng  ―  elder brother
    8. leader; master; chief; head
    9. eldest; oldest
    10. to exalt; to honor
    11. to wield; to be in control of
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡiaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zoeng6
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    No. 1280
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (archaic) length; measure of length
      See also:
    2. (archaic, Min) to be left over; surplus, residue
      今旦 [Min Dong, trad.]
      今旦 [Min Dong, simp.]
      Gĭng-dáng buông diông iā sâ̤ / [kiŋ⁵⁵⁻⁵³ (t-)nɑŋ²¹³ puɔŋ²⁴² tuɔŋ²⁴² ia³³ sɑ²⁴²] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
      There is a lot of leftover food today.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. long, lengthy
    2. long time
    3. growing, increasing
    4. excellent, great
    5. comfortable, relaxing
    6. elder, old, senior
    7. chief, head, leader
    8. Short for 長門 (Nagato no kuni): Nagato Province

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ちょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /tjau//t͡ɕjau//t͡ɕɔː//t͡ɕoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʈɨɐŋX) in the sense of “chief, head, leader” and (MC ɖɨɐŋ) (literally meaning “long”) for other senses. The two Middle Chinese readings were distinct but etymologically connected.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ちょう) (chōちやう (tyau)?

    1. chief, head, leader
      (はん)(ちょう)
      han chō
      the group leader
    2. strong point
      (ちょう )( の)ばす
      chō o nobasu
      enrich a strong point
      Antonym: (tan)
    3. (music) major
      Antonym: (tan)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ちょう) (Chōちやう (tyau)?

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おさ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /wosa//osa/

    From Old Japanese.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (おさ) (osaをさ (wosa)?

    1. chief, head, leader
      Synonym: (kashira)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (おさ) (Osaをさ (wosa)?

    1. a place name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なが
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Stem form of classical adjective 長し (nagashi), modern 長い (nagai, long, lengthy).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (なが) (naga-

    1. long
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (なが) (Naga

    1. a surname

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つかさ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular
    Alternative spellings


    From Old Japanese.

    Probably derived from 就か (tsuka, irrealis form of verb 就く (tsuku), “to take a position) +‎ (-sa, -ness, suffix indicating state or degree). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (つかさ) (tsukasa

    1. a manager, a headman, a foreman
    2. an official
    3. government service

    Proper noun[edit]

    (つかさ) (Tsukasa

    1. a surname
    2. a male or female given name

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たき
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    ⟨taki1 → */takʲi//taki/

    Possibly a variant of take below.[3] Appears in the Ruiju Myōgishō of around 1081-1100 C.E..

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (たき) (taki

    1. height

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たけ
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    ⟨take2 → */takəj//take/

    Cognate with (taka, height), 高い (takai, high), and 長ける (takeru, to be high).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (たけ) (take

    1. height

    Proper noun[edit]

    (たけ) (Take

    1. a surname.

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    たける
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Nominalization of verb 長ける (takeru, to excel at).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (たける) (Takeru

    1. a surname
    2. a male or female given name

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひさし
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Old Japanese.

    Nominalization of classical adjective 久し (hisashi), modern 久しい (hisashii, long time).

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひさし) (Hisashi

    1. a surname
    2. a male or female given name

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɖɨɐŋ, “long”).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 땨ᇰ (Yale: ttyàng)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 (Yale: kin) (Yale: tyang)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (gil jang))

    1. Hanja form? of (long; lengthy). [prefix]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory. Lua error: not enough memory

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    Hanja[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hanja form? of Lua error: not enough memory. [noun, suffix]
    2. Hanja form? of Lua error: not enough memory. [affix]

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • Lua error: not enough memory (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, Lua error: not enough memory. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory.

    Compounds[edit]

    Lua error: not enough memory

    References[edit]