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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
常-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 50 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 火月口中月 (FBRLB), four-corner 90227, composition ⿱⿱)

  1. common, normal, frequent, regular, often
  2. a Chinese surname

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 333, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8955
  • Dae Jaweon: page 639, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 744, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5E38

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
English Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia en

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /saŋ³¹/
Guiyang /saŋ²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɑ̃¹³/
Suzhou /zã¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂan¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sɔŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /soŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sœŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /sœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siɔŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siaŋ⁵⁵/
/siõ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tiaŋ³¹/
/saŋ³¹/ 平時
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (25)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑɨɐŋ/ /ʑi̯aŋ/ /ʑiaŋ/ /d͡ʑiɐŋ/ /d͡ʑɨaŋ/ /ʑĭaŋ/ /d͡ʑiɑŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
cháng ‹ dzyang › /*[d]aŋ/ constant

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11152 0 /*djaŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. common; general; normal
  2. constant; invariable
  3. often; frequently
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 5
on'yomi

/d͡ʑau//d͡ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

From Middle Chinese ‎(dzyang, constant).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji , historical hiragana じやう)

  1. (obsolete) always, constantly, consistently

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji , historical hiragana じやう)

  1. a traditional Japanese unit of length, equal to one ‎(, roughly three meters) and three ‎(shaku, roughly one foot or thirty centimeters)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
きだ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

Cognate with root kiza in 刻む ‎(kizamu, to mince; to slice; to cut a thing into pieces; to groove, to nick, to notch).[1]

Also sometimes read as kita.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きだ, romaji kida) (alternative reading romaji )

  1. (obsolete) a traditional Japanese unit of measure for the length of cut cloth
  2. (obsolete) a traditional Japanese unit of measure for the area of an agricultural field or paddy

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana きだ, romaji -kida)

  1. counter for cuts or strips of something

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
つね
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, compiled around 759 CE.[1] May be cognate with ‎(tsuna, thick rope; binding), with underlying ideas of connection, continuance.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana つね, romaji tsune)

  1. (obsolete) eternal, permanent, consistent
  2. (obsolete) normal, everyday, regular, usual, ordinary
Usage notes[edit]

This appears as an adjective in older texts with the classical attributive form tsune naru. When used attributively in modern Japanese, this term is used with the particle ‎(no) instead:

  •  (つね) (ひと)
    tsune no hito
    everyday people, regular people

Modern Japanese does still use this term as an adverb, with particle ‎(ni):

  • このカメラは (つね)オンになっている。
    Kono kamera wa tsune ni on ni natte iru.
    This camera is always on.
  • あの会社 (かいしゃ)はサービスが (つね) (わる)い。
    Ano kaisha wa sābisu ga tsune ni warui.
    That company has consistently bad service.
Synonyms[edit]

(normal, usual):

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つね, romaji tsune)

  1. constancy, continuance
  2. the ordinary, the everyday

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
とこ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly cognate with ‎(toki, time).

The way the term is used in the historical record suggests that this was originally a noun. By the time of written Japanese, however, this term only appears in compounds, never on its own, and its usage is more as an adjective to modify other nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana とこ, romaji toko-)

  1. eternal, forever, unchanging, everlasting
Usage notes[edit]

Only used in compounds. Attaches to nouns and other nominals, often (but not always) with the now-obsolete possessive particle ‎(tsu).

  •  (とこ)御門 (みかど) (とこ) (なつ) (とこ)とわ
    toko tsu mikado, tokonatsu, tokotowa
    the eternal palace, eternal summer, eternal permanence [→ eternity]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
とことわ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

/tokotoba//tokotowa/

From Old Japanese. Read as tokotoba until the Heian period.[1][2]

Appears to be originally a compound of ‎(toko, eternal, see above) +‎ とわ ‎(towa, permanence, unchangingness, from earlier とば toba).

This latter element is of unclear derivation. Some sources[1] indicate that towa as an independent term arose as a contraction of earlier tokotoba, suggesting the possibility that toba was initially a compound of particles ‎(to, adverbial particle) + ‎(wa, formerly ba, even earlier pa; topic particle). However, other sources[3] describe tokotowa as an intensified or emphatic form of towa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana とことわ, romaji tokotowa, historical hiragana とことは)

  1. (archaic, rare) permanent, eternal
  2. (archaic, rare) usual, ordinary
Usage notes[edit]

Listed in dictionaries[1][2][4] as a 形容動詞 ‎(keiyō dōshi, -na adjective). However, actual usage suggests that this was only used with particle ‎(ni) as an adverb, and never with particle ‎(na) or classical なる ‎(naru) as an adjective.  When this appears attributively, it is followed by particle ‎(no),[3] the usual construction when using a noun to modify another noun.

Synonyms[edit]
  • (permanent, eternal):  (とこ)しえ ‎(tokoshie)
  • (usual, ordinary): tsune (see above)

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とことわ, romaji tokotowa, historical hiragana とことは)

  1. (archaic, rare) permanence, eternity
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
とわ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

/toba//towa/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Tales of Ise, likely dating to the early 900s CE. Pronounced as toba until the later Heian period.[1]

Ultimate derivation unknown. May be a contraction of earlier tokotoba (see above),[1] or may have been an independent term used to form tokotoba as a compound.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana とわ, romaji towa, historical hiragana とは)

  1. constant, permanent, everlasting
Usage notes[edit]

Listed in some dictionaries[1][2][4] as a 形容動詞 ‎(keiyō dōshi, -na adjective); other sources[3] only list this as a 副詞 ‎(fukushi, adverb). Historical usage suggests that this was only used with particle ‎(ni) as an adverb, and not with particle ‎(na) or classical なる ‎(naru) as an adjective.  When this appears attributively, it is followed by particle ‎(no),[2][4][3] the usual construction when using a noun to modify another noun.

Synonyms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とわ, romaji towa, historical hiragana とは)

  1. constancy, permanence, everlastingness
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sang) (hangeul , revised sang, McCune-Reischauer sang)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thường, sàn)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.