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U+5E38, 常
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E38

[U+5E37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E39]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
11 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 50, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 火月口中月 (FBRLB), four-corner 90227, composition𫩠 or ⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 333, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8955
  • Dae Jaweon: page 639, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 744, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5E38

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djaŋ): phonetic  (OC *djaŋ, *djaŋs) + semantic  (cloth).

The character originally referred to "lower garment", before being phonetically borrowed to mean "long-lasting; frequently". The original sense is now represented by the character (OC *djaŋ, “lower garment”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • siûⁿ/siôⁿ - vernacular;
  • chhiâng - vernacular (only in 常在);
  • siông/siâng - literary.
Note:
  • sion5/siên5 - vernacular (siên5 - Chaozhou);
  • siang5 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    /t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /saŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /saŋ²¹/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zɑ̃²³/
    Suzhou /zã¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ji³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ʂɔn¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /sɔŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /soŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʃoŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sœŋ²¹/
    Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /sœŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siɔŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /siaŋ⁵⁵/
    /siõ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /tiaŋ³¹/
    /saŋ³¹/ 平時

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[d]aŋ/
    English constant

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11152
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. normal; general; common
    2. constant; invariable
    3. often; frequently
    4. 51st tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "constancy" (𝌸)
    5. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (じょう) ()
    • Korean: (, sang)
    • Vietnamese: thường ()

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. eternal, unchanging
    2. ordinary, usual
    3. continuation
    4. Hitachi Province

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    じょう
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    /d͡ʑau//d͡ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋ).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Adverb[edit]

    (じょう) ( (historical kana じやう)

    1. (obsolete) always, constantly, consistently
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (じょう) ( (historical kana じやう)

    1. a traditional Japanese unit of length, equal to one (, roughly three meters) and three (shaku, roughly one foot or thirty centimeters)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きだ
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    *⟨ki1da⟩ → */kʲida//kida/

    First attested in the Kojiki (712 CE).

    Cognate with root kiza in 刻む (kizamu, to mince; to slice; to cut a thing into pieces; to groove, to nick, to notch).[1]

    Also sometimes read as kita.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (きだ) or (きた) (kida or kita

    1. (obsolete) a traditional Japanese unit of measure for the length of cut cloth, equal to one (, roughly three meters) and three (shaku, roughly one foot or thirty centimeters)
    2. (obsolete) a traditional Japanese unit of measure for the area of an agricultural field or paddy, equal to either 360 (bu, around 1190 square meters), later reduced to 300 (bu)/ (tsubo, almost 992 square meters)
      Synonym: (tan)

    Counter[edit]

    (きだ) (-kida

    1. counter for cuts or strips of something

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    つね
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    /tune//t͡sune/

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, compiled around 759 CE.[1] May be cognate with (tsuna, thick rope; binding), with underlying ideas of "connection, continuance".

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    (つね) (tsune-na (adnominal (つね) (tsune na), adverbial (つね) (tsune ni))

    1. (obsolete) eternal, permanent, consistent
    2. (obsolete) normal, everyday, regular, usual, ordinary
      Synonyms: 普段 (fudan), 普通 (futsū), 平素 (heiso)
    Usage notes[edit]

    This appears as an adjective in older texts with the classical attributive form tsune naru. When used attributively in modern Japanese, this term is used with the particle (no) instead:

    • (つね)(ひと)
      tsune no hito
      everyday people, regular people

    Modern Japanese does still use this term as an adverb, with particle (ni):

    • このカメラは(つね)オンになっている。
      Kono kamera wa tsune ni on ni natte iru.
      This camera is always on.
    • あの会社(かいしゃ)はサービスが(つね)(わる)い。
      Ano kaisha wa sābisu ga tsune ni warui.
      That company has consistently bad service.
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (つね) (tsune

    1. constancy, continuance
    2. the ordinary, the everyday

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とこ
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    ⟨to2ko2 → */təkə//toko/

    From Old Japanese. Possibly cognate with (toki, time). Alternatively, from Proto-Nivkh *d’ək (whence Nivkh тьык (țək, (a) long time)).[4]

    The way the term is used in the historical record suggests that this was originally a noun. By the time of written Japanese, however, this term only appears in compounds, never on its own, and its usage is more as an adjective to modify other nouns.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    (とこ) (toko-

    1. eternal, forever, unchanging, everlasting
    Usage notes[edit]

    Only used in compounds. Attaches to nouns and other nominals, often (but not always) with the now-obsolete possessive particle (tsu).

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とことわ
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    /tokotoba//tokotowa/

    From Old Japanese. Read as tokotoba until the Heian period.[1][2]

    Appears to be originally a compound of (toko, eternal, see above) +‎ とわ (towa, permanence, unchangingness, from earlier とば toba).

    This latter element is of unclear derivation. Some sources[1] indicate that towa as an independent term arose as a contraction of earlier tokotoba, suggesting the possibility that toba was initially a compound of particles (to, adverbial particle) + (wa, formerly ba, even earlier pa; topic particle). However, other sources[5] describe tokotowa as an intensified or emphatic form of towa.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    (とことわ) (tokotowa-na (adnominal (とことわ) (tokotowa na), adverbial (とことわ) (tokotowa ni), historical kana とことは)

    1. (archaic, rare) permanent, eternal
      Synonym: 常しえ (tokoshie)
    2. (archaic, rare) usual, ordinary
      Synonym: (tsune)
    Usage notes[edit]

    Listed in dictionaries[1][2][6] as a 形容動詞 (keiyō dōshi, -na adjective). However, actual usage suggests that this was only used with particle (ni) as an adverb, and never with particle (na) or classical なる (naru) as an adjective. When this appears attributively, it is followed by particle (no),[5] the usual construction when using a noun to modify another noun.

    Noun[edit]

    (とことわ) (tokotowa (historical kana とことは)

    1. (archaic, rare) permanence, eternity
      Synonym: 常しえ (tokoshie)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    とわ
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    /toba//towa/

    From Old Japanese. Appears in the Tales of Ise, likely dating to the early 900s CE. Pronounced as toba until the later Heian period.[1]

    Ultimate derivation unknown. May be a contraction of earlier tokotoba (see above),[1] or may have been an independent term used to form tokotoba as a compound.[5]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Adjective[edit]

    (とわ) (towa-na (adnominal (とわ) (towa na), adverbial (とわ) (towa ni), historical kana とは)

    1. constant, permanent, everlasting
      Synonym: 常しえ (tokoshie)
    Usage notes[edit]

    Listed in some dictionaries[1][2][6] as a 形容動詞 (keiyō dōshi, -na adjective); other sources[5] only list this as a 副詞 (fukushi, adverb). Historical usage suggests that this was only used with particle (ni) as an adverb, and not with particle (na) or classical なる (naru) as an adjective. When this appears attributively, it is followed by particle (no),[2][6][5] the usual construction when using a noun to modify another noun.

    Noun[edit]

    (とわ) (towa (historical kana とは)

    1. constancy, permanence, everlastingness
      Synonym: 常しえ (tokoshie)

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ Miyano, Satoshi. "Nivkh Loanwords in Japanese and Korean".
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋ).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 떳떳할 (tteottteothal sang))
    (eumhun 항상 (hangsang sang))

    1. Hanja form? of (honorable; righteous; upright; dignified).
    2. Hanja form? of (eternal; everlasting).
    3. Hanja form? of (constant; frequent).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thường ((thần)(dương)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: thường[1][2][3][4][6], sàn[7]

    1. Hán tự form of thường (frequent; usual).
    2. Hán tự form of thường (ordinary; common; average).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]