Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
U+5E38, 常
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E38

[U+5E37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E39]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
常-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 50 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 火月口中月 (FBRLB), four-corner 90227, composition ⿱⿱)

  1. common, normal, frequent, regular, often
  2. a Chinese surname

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 333, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8955
  • Dae Jaweon: page 639, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 744, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5E38

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*taːŋ, *taːŋs
*taːŋ
*taːŋ, *sʰraːŋ
*taːŋ
*taːŋ
*taːŋ, *taːŋs
*taːŋ, *taːŋs
*taːŋ
*taːŋʔ, *taːŋs
*taːŋʔ, *tʰaːŋʔ
*taːŋʔ
*taːŋʔ
*taːŋs
*taːŋs
*taːŋs
*tʰaːŋ
*tʰaːŋ, *daːŋ
*tʰaːŋ
*tʰaːŋʔ
*tʰaːŋʔ, *tʰaːŋs
*tʰaːŋʔ
*tʰaːŋʔ
*tʰaːŋʔ
*hl'aːŋʔ, *ɦʷlaːŋʔ, *ɦʷlaːŋs
*tʰaːŋʔ
*tʰaːŋʔ
*tʰaːŋʔ
*tʰaːŋs, *rtaːŋ, *rtaːŋs
*daːŋ
*daːŋ
*daːŋ
*daːŋ
*daːŋ
*daːŋ
*daːŋ
*tjaŋʔ
*tʰjaŋʔ, *tʰjaŋs
*tʰjaŋʔ
*tʰjaŋʔ
*tʰjaŋʔ
*djaŋ
*djaŋ
*djaŋ
*djaŋ
*djaŋ, *djaŋs
*djaŋ
*djaŋ
*djaŋ
*djaŋ, *djaŋs
*hjaŋʔ
*rtʰaːŋ
*rtʰaːŋ
*rtʰaːŋ
*rtʰaːŋ
*rtʰaːŋs
*tʰoŋʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *djaŋ): phonetic (OC *djaŋ, *djaŋs) + semantic (turban).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /saŋ³¹/
Guiyang /saŋ²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zɑ̃²³/
Suzhou /zã¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʂan¹³/
Xiangtan /ʂɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /sɔŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /soŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʃoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sœŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /sœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siɔŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /suoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siaŋ⁵⁵/
/siõ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tiaŋ³¹/
/saŋ³¹/ 平時

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiaŋ/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cháng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cháng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]aŋ/
English constant

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11152
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djaŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. common; general; normal
  2. constant; invariable
  3. often; frequently
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 5
on'yomi

/d͡ʑau//d͡ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

From Middle Chinese (dzyang, constant).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji , historical hiragana じやう)

  1. (obsolete) always, constantly, consistently

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana じょう, romaji , historical hiragana じやう)

  1. a traditional Japanese unit of length, equal to one (, roughly three meters) and three (shaku, roughly one foot or thirty centimeters)

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
きだ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

Cognate with root kiza in 刻む(kizamu, to mince; to slice; to cut a thing into pieces; to groove, to nick, to notch).[1]

Also sometimes read as kita.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana きだ, romaji kida, alternative reading きた, romaji kita)

  1. (obsolete) a traditional Japanese unit of measure for the length of cut cloth
  2. (obsolete) a traditional Japanese unit of measure for the area of an agricultural field or paddy

Counter[edit]

‎(hiragana きだ, romaji -kida)

  1. counter for cuts or strips of something

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
つね
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, compiled around 759 CE.[1] May be cognate with (tsuna, thick rope; binding), with underlying ideas of connection, continuance.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana つね, romaji tsune)

  1. (obsolete) eternal, permanent, consistent
  2. (obsolete) normal, everyday, regular, usual, ordinary
Usage notes[edit]

This appears as an adjective in older texts with the classical attributive form tsune naru. When used attributively in modern Japanese, this term is used with the particle (no) instead:

  •  (つね) (ひと)
    tsune no hito
    everyday people, regular people

Modern Japanese does still use this term as an adverb, with particle (ni):

  • このカメラは (つね)オンになっている。
    Kono kamera wa tsune ni on ni natte iru.
    This camera is always on.
  • あの会社 (かいしゃ)はサービスが (つね) (わる)い。
    Ano kaisha wa sābisu ga tsune ni warui.
    That company has consistently bad service.
Synonyms[edit]

(normal, usual):

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana つね, romaji tsune)

  1. constancy, continuance
  2. the ordinary, the everyday

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
とこ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly cognate with (toki, time).

The way the term is used in the historical record suggests that this was originally a noun. By the time of written Japanese, however, this term only appears in compounds, never on its own, and its usage is more as an adjective to modify other nouns.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana とこ, romaji toko-)

  1. eternal, forever, unchanging, everlasting
Usage notes[edit]

Only used in compounds. Attaches to nouns and other nominals, often (but not always) with the now-obsolete possessive particle (tsu).

  •  (とこ)御門 (みかど) (とこ) (なつ) (とこ)とわ
    toko tsu mikado, tokonatsu, tokotowa
    the eternal palace, eternal summer, eternal permanence [→ eternity]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
とことわ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

/tokotoba//tokotowa/

From Old Japanese. Read as tokotoba until the Heian period.[1][2]

Appears to be originally a compound of (toko, eternal, see above) +‎ とわ(towa, permanence, unchangingness, from earlier とば toba).

This latter element is of unclear derivation. Some sources[1] indicate that towa as an independent term arose as a contraction of earlier tokotoba, suggesting the possibility that toba was initially a compound of particles (to, adverbial particle) + (wa, formerly ba, even earlier pa; topic particle). However, other sources[3] describe tokotowa as an intensified or emphatic form of towa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana とことわ, romaji tokotowa, historical hiragana とことは)

  1. (archaic, rare) permanent, eternal
  2. (archaic, rare) usual, ordinary
Usage notes[edit]

Listed in dictionaries[1][2][4] as a 形容動詞(keiyō dōshi, -na adjective). However, actual usage suggests that this was only used with particle (ni) as an adverb, and never with particle (na) or classical なる(naru) as an adjective. When this appears attributively, it is followed by particle (no),[3] the usual construction when using a noun to modify another noun.

Synonyms[edit]
  • (permanent, eternal):  (とこ)しえ(tokoshie)
  • (usual, ordinary): tsune (see above)

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とことわ, romaji tokotowa, historical hiragana とことは)

  1. (archaic, rare) permanence, eternity
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
とわ
Grade: 5
kun'yomi

/toba//towa/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Tales of Ise, likely dating to the early 900s CE. Pronounced as toba until the later Heian period.[1]

Ultimate derivation unknown. May be a contraction of earlier tokotoba (see above),[1] or may have been an independent term used to form tokotoba as a compound.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(-na inflection, hiragana とわ, romaji towa, historical hiragana とは)

  1. constant, permanent, everlasting
Usage notes[edit]

Listed in some dictionaries[1][2][4] as a 形容動詞(keiyō dōshi, -na adjective); other sources[3] only list this as a 副詞(fukushi, adverb). Historical usage suggests that this was only used with particle (ni) as an adverb, and not with particle (na) or classical なる(naru) as an adjective. When this appears attributively, it is followed by particle (no),[2][4][3] the usual construction when using a noun to modify another noun.

Synonyms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana とわ, romaji towa, historical hiragana とは)

  1. constancy, permanence, everlastingness
Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(sang) (hangeul , revised sang, McCune-Reischauer sang)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thường, sàn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.