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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai NA.svg
U+306A, な
HIRAGANA LETTER NA

[U+3069]
Hiragana
[U+306B]

Japanese[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable[edit]

(romaji na)

  1. The hiragana syllable (na). Its equivalent in katakana is (na). It is the twenty-first syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (na-gyō a-dan, row na, section a).
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably derived from mild emphatic interjection and sentence-final particle , itself from Old Japanese, indicating a general sense of admiration or consideration, or hope that the preceding statement comes to pass.

Interjection[edit]

(na

  1. (masculine, informal, mild emphatic) used to get someone's attention, generally carries neutral or slightly positive connotations
    ()いたかいna, kiita kai.Hey, did you hear?

Particle[edit]

(na

  1. (informal, mild emphatic) sentence-final particle indicating emotion or mild emphasis
    そうsō ka na.Huh, is that so.
    Synonym: なあ ()
Usage notes[edit]

Often used when you are speaking to yourself, and can be considered less formal than the agreement-asking particle .

Etymology 3[edit]

/ni aru//naru//na/

From Old Japanese. Originally an abbreviation of (ni, particle) + ある (aru, the attributive form of classical あり ari, “to be”).[1]

Particle[edit]

(na

  1. copula particle used after 形容動詞 (keiyōdōshi, often referred to in English teaching texts as -na adjective, literally adjective verb) to make them function as adjectives
    (へん)(ひと)hen na hitoa strange person
Usage notes[edit]

The older なる (naru) form is still used to impart a more formal, archaic, or poetic sense.

(しず)なる田園(でんえん)shizuka naru den'enthe quiet countryside

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Japanese. Probably the root na of the negative adjective ない (nai). An alternate theory is that this is the imperfective conjugation of negative auxiliary verb (zu).

Particle[edit]

(na

  1. (masculine, informal, added after the dictionary form of a verb) indicates prohibition: don't
    ()Iku na!Don't go!
    ()(だん)引用(いんよう)するMudan de in'yō suru na.Don't quote it without permission.
Usage notes[edit]

Considered very informal and potentially brusque depending on tone of voice. This would never be used in polite conversation, where the construction ~ないで下さい (~naide kudasai) would be used instead, appended to the imperfective stem of the verb in question. Examples:

  • Addressing close friends, children, or possibly subordinates:
    するsuru na.Don't do that.
  • Addressing anyone else:
    ないでくださいshinaide kudasai.(Please) Don't do that.

Etymology 5[edit]

Clipping of polite imperative auxiliary verb form なさい (nasai).

Suffix[edit]

(-na

  1. (informal, added after the stem form of a verb) indicates an imperative statement or command: do
    あっち()ぼうや
    Atchi e ikina, bōya.
    Go over there, boy → Get out of the way, boy!
    (すわ)suwarina yo.SitHave a seat.
Usage notes[edit]
  • A casual way of issuing commands; not as rough as the imperative conjugation of a verb.
  • Usage is restricted to addressing friends, children, or subordinates.
    ()tabenaEat!
  • In spoken Japanese, the prohibitive na and the imperative na are also differentiated by pitch accent patterns. For prohibitive na, the pitch on the suffix follows the pitch on the verb stem; and for imperative na, the pitch is higher than on the verb stem.
    書く (kaku na, “don't write”) → くな
    書き (kaki na, “write”) → か
Synonyms[edit]

Roughly in order of politeness:

Etymology 6[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
1
[noun] name
[noun] reputation
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

Etymology 7[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
4
[noun] greens
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

Etymology 8[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
H
[noun] driving away the gods of disease
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

Etymology 9[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
J
[pronoun] (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

Etymology 10[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

Etymology 11[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
1
[numeral] (colloquial) seven, 7
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

Etymology 12[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Old Japanese[edit]

Noun[edit]

(na)

  1. : name
  2. : written character
  3. , , : side dish, especially fish, greens, etc.

Pronoun[edit]

(na)

  1. : first-person singular pronoun: I, me; second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
  2. , : third-person reflexive pronoun: one, oneself, itself