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Stroke order
な-bw.png
Character
Unicode name HIRAGANA LETTER NA
Unicode block Hiragana
Codepoint U+306A

Japanese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. The hiragana syllable ‎(na). Its equivalent in katakana is ‎(na). It is the twenty-first syllable in the gojūon order; its position is ‎(na-gyō a-dan, row na, section a).
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Probably derived from mild emphatic interjection and sentence-final particle , itself from Old Japanese, indicating a general sense of admiration or consideration, or hope that the preceding statement comes to pass.

Interjection[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. (masculine, informal, mild emphatic) Used to get someone's attention. Carries generally neutral or slightly positive connotations.
     ()いたかい。
    Na, kiita kai.
    Hey, did you hear?

Particle[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. (informal, mild emphatic) Indicates emotion or mild emphasis. Sentence-final.
    そうか
    Sō ka na.
    Huh, is that so.
Usage notes[edit]
It is often used when you speak to yourself, and can be considered less formal than the agreement-asking particle .
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

/ni aru//naru//na/

From Old Japanese. Originally an abbreviation of ‎(ni, particle) + ある ‎(ari, the attributive form of classical あり ari, “to be”).[1]

Particle[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. The copula particle used after 形容動詞 ‎(keiyōdōshi, literally “adjective verb”, often referred to in English teaching texts as -na adjective) to make them function as adjectives.
     (へん) (ひと)
    hen na hito
    a strange person
Usage notes[edit]

The older なる ‎(naru) form is still used to impart a more formal, archaic, or poetic sense.

 (しず)なる田園 (でんえん)
shizuka naru den'en
the quiet countryside

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Japanese. Probably the root na of the negative adjective ない ‎(nai). An alternate theory is that this is the imperfective conjugation of negative auxiliary verb ‎(zu).

Suffix[edit]

‎(romaji -na)

  1. (masculine, informal, added after the dictionary form of a verb) Used to indicate prohibition: don't.
     ()
    Ikuna!
    Don't go!
    無断 (むだん)引用 (いんよう)する
    Mudan de in'yō suruna.
    Don't quote it without permission.
Usage notes[edit]

Considered very informal and potentially brusque depending on tone of voice. This would never be used in polite conversation, where the construction ~ないで下さい ‎(~naide kudasai) would be used instead, appended to the imperfective stem of the verb in question. Examples:

  • Addressing close friends, children, or possibly subordinates:
    する
    Suruna.
    Don't do that.
  • Addressing anyone else:
    ないでください
    Shinaide kudasai.
    (Please) Don't do that.

Etymology 5[edit]

Abbreviation of polite imperative auxiliary verb form なさい ‎(nasai).

Suffix[edit]

‎(romaji -na)

  1. (informal, added after the stem form of a verb) An imperative or command: do.
    あっちへ ()、ぼうや。
    Atchi e ikina, bōya.
    Go over there, boy → Get out of the way, boy!
     (すわ)よ。
    Suwarina yo.
    SitHave a seat.
Usage notes[edit]

A casual way of issuing commands. Not as rough as the imperative conjugation of a verb. Usage restricted to addressing friends, children, or subordinates.

 ()
tabena
eat!
Synonyms[edit]

Roughly in order of politeness:

Etymology 6[edit]

The hiragana rendering of various other words.

Noun[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. : A name.
  2. : Fish as a food, particularly as a side dish.
  3. : Greens as a food, particularly as a side dish.
  4. : A side dish, be it meat or fish or greens.
  5. : A lack of something.
  6. : Driving away the gods of disease.

Number[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. : (obsolete) Seven.
Synonyms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

‎(romaji na)

  1. , : (obsolete) The first-person personal pronoun: I, me; the second-person personal pronoun: you.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan