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U+6C5D, 汝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5D

[U+6C5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C5E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水女 (EV), four-corner 34140, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 606, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1555, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6C5D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms “you”
Min “you” (colloquial)

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njaʔ): semantic  (river; water) + phonetic  (OC *naʔ, *nas).

Etymology[edit]

river
Probably related to Proto-Kam-Sui *Ɂnjaᴬ (river), whence Southern Kam nyal (river), Sui qnyal (Schuessler, 2007).
“you”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • lú - literary.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • jí/ní - literary.
  • mainstream Taiwan:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • jú/lú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: le2 / lu2 / re2 / ru2
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: lṳ́ / lú / jṳ́ / jú
    • Sinological IPA (key): /lɯ⁵²/, /lu⁵²/, /d͡zɯ⁵²/, /d͡zu⁵²/
  • Note:
    • le2/lu2 - vernacular;
    • re2/ru2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naʔ/
    English you (sg.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njaʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (, ) Ru River, a northern tributary of the Huai River in modern-day southern Henan province. The name also refers to the Hong River in its lower reaches, which now shares a common course with the Ru, as well as a southern tributary of the Hong.
    2. (literary or coastal Min) thou, you (second-person pronoun)
    3. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Thai: ลื้อ (lʉ́ʉ)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. you

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[1][2] Possibly cognate with Korean (i, this person).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    () (i

    1. (derogatory) second person pronoun: you
      • 712: Kojiki (page 156)
        大久米命二人、召兄宇迦斯罵詈云、此二字以音所作仕奉於大殿内者、意禮此二字以音先入、明白其將爲仕奉之状而[...]
    Usage notes[edit]

    Takes the particle .

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    まし
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (masu, to be, honorific).[1]

    Alternatively, a shortening of imashi[1][2] (see below).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (まし) (mashi

    1. (obsolete, informal) second person pronoun: you
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3440)
        許乃河泊尓 安佐菜安良布児 奈礼毛安礼毛 余知乎曽母弖流 伊仾児多婆里尓 一云 麻之毛安礼母
    Usage notes[edit]

    Less honorific than both mashi and imashi.

    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いまし
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be, honorific).[1]

    Possibly also analyzable as a compound of (i-, you) +‎ (mashi, presence; being, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す masu, “to be”).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (いまし) (imashi

    1. (obsolete, polite) second person pronoun: you
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 11, poem 2517)
        足千根乃 母尓障良婆 無用 伊麻思毛吾毛 事應成
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3359)
        駿河能宇美 於思敝尓於布流 波麻都豆良 伊麻思乎多能美 波播尓多我比奴 一云 於夜尓多我比奴
      • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #29)
        朕子伊末之授給
    Usage notes[edit]

    More honorific than mashi. Less honorific than mimashi.

    See also[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みまし
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    Compound of (mi-, honorific prefix) +‎ (mashi, you).[1] Also analyzable as a shift in meaning of 御座 (mimashi), an honorific term of address or reference used for nobility.[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (みまし) (mimashi

    1. (obsolete, honorific) second person pronoun: you
      • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #5)
        藤原宮天下所知美麻斯坐天皇美麻斯天下之業詔大命聞食恐受賜懼坐事衆聞食宣。可久賜時美麻斯[...]吾子美麻斯授賜[...]
      • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #51)
        美末斯大臣萬政總以<...> 彌麻之大臣之家内子等乎母<...>美麻之大臣罷道[...]
      • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #52)
        大命坐詔美麻斯大臣仕奉來狀[...]
    Usage notes[edit]

    More honorific than both mashi and imashi.

    See also[edit]

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *na. Possibly cognate with Korean (neo, you, second-person singular informal pronoun).

    Also found in some instances as a self-reference, one, oneself. This sense is more commonly spelled when used in isolation.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean (na, I, first-person singular informal pronoun).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    () (na

    1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you
      • 712: Kojiki (poem #5)
        夜知富許能 加微能美許登夜 阿賀淤富久迩奴斯 許曾波 遠迩伊麻世婆 宇知微流 斯麻能佐岐邪岐 加岐微流 伊蘇能佐岐淤知受和加久佐能 都麻母多勢良米 阿波母與 賣迩斯阿禮婆 遠岐弖遠波那志 遠岐弖 都麻波那斯 [...]
      • 720: Nihon Shoki (poem #90)
        飫裒枳瀰能 耶陛能矩瀰哿枳 哿哿梅騰謀 嗚阿摩之耳彌 哿哿農倶彌柯枳
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3353)
        阿良多麻能 伎倍乃波也之尓 乎多弖天 由伎可都麻思自 移乎佐伎太多尼
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3468)
        夜麻杼里乃 乎呂能波都乎尓 可賀美可家 刀奈布倍美許曽 尓与曽利鶏米
      • c. 920: Azuma Asobi Uta (#2)
        衣 和賀世古加 介左乃古止天者 奈奈川乎乃 也川乎乃古止乎 之良部 太留古止也 乎加介也末乃 可川乃介也 乎々々々
    2. (obsolete) first person pronoun: I
    3. (obsolete) self-referential pronoun: one, oneself
      • c. 759: Man'yōshū poem 1755 (text here)
        鴬之 生卵乃中尓 霍公鳥 獨所生而 父尓 似而者不鳴 己母尓 似而者不鳴
        うぐひすの かひごのなかに ほととぎす ひとりうまれて がちちに にてはなかず
        Inside a warbler's egg, a cuckoo was born, but it looked like its own father and did not sing...
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なれ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. The long form of (na) above. Compound of (na) and suffix (re).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (なれ) (nare

    1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3440)
        許乃河泊尓 安佐菜安良布児 奈礼毛安礼毛 余知乎曽母弖流 伊仾児多婆里尓 一云 麻之毛安礼母
      • c. 913 Kokin Wakashū (#904)
        ちはやぶる宇治のはしもり なれをしぞあはれとは思ふ 年のへぬれば
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なむち
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Compound of (na, you) +‎ (muchi, noble).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (なむち) (namuchi

    1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なむぢ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    /namuti//namudi//namud͡ʑi/

    From earlier なむち (namuchi). Final voicing due to influence of medial voiced /m/.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (なむじ) (namuji (historical kana なむぢ)

    1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        大納言わらゐて、「なむぢらが君の使と名を流しつ。君の仰ごとをば、いかが背くべき」との給て [...]
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        大納言起きゐてのたまはく、「汝(なむぢ)らよくもて來ずなりぬ。龍は鳴る神のるいにこそありけれ。[...]」

    Etymology 9[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なんじ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    /namuti//namudi//nandi//nand͡ʑi/

    From earlier なむぢ (namudi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (なんじ) (nanji (historical kana なんぢ)

    1. (archaic) second person pronoun: you
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        汝(なんぢ)が持ちて侍るかぐや姫たてまつれ。」
      • c. late 9th–mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
        いはく、「汝(なんぢ)、おさなき人、いささかなる功徳を翁つくりけるによりて、汝(なんぢ)が助けにとて、かた時のほどとて下ししを[...]」
    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune–Reischauer yŏ, Yale ye)

    1. you
    2. the name of water, river[1]
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nhớ, nhở, nhởi, nhứ, nhử, nhữ, dử, nhừ, nở)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.