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U+6C5D, 汝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5D

[U+6C5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C5E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水女 (EV), four-corner 34140, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 606, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1555, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6C5D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms “you”
Min “you” (colloquial)

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː
*rnaː, *na
*rnaː, *naː, *naːs
*rnaː, *na
*rnaːs, *nas, *snas, *nas
*rnaːw
*rnaːw
*n̥ʰaːŋʔ, *naː
*naː
*naː, *naːʔ
*naː
*naː
*naːʔ
*naːʔ
*naːʔ, *naːs
*na
*na
*naʔ, *nas
*naʔ
*hnjas
*nja, *njas
*nja, *njaʔ, *njas
*nja, *njas
*nja
*nja
*njaʔ
*njaʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njaʔ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *naʔ, *nas).

Etymology[edit]

“you”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • lí/lír/lú - vernacular;
  • lí/lír/lú/jú/jí/ní - literary.
Note:
  • le2/lu2 - vernacular;
  • re2/ru2 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨʌX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɔX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiɔX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵɨə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɔX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭoX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯woX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyoX ›
Old
Chinese
/*naʔ/
English you (sg.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9628
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njaʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (, ) Ru River, a northern tributary of the Huai River in modern-day southern Henan province. The name also refers to the Hong River in its lower reaches, which now shares a common course with the Ru, as well as a southern tributary of the Hong.
  2. (obsolete or Min) you (second-person pronoun)
  3. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 你家
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Ningbo 爾儂像儂像爾
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. you

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Possibly cognate with Korean (i, this person).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji i)

  1. (derogatory) second person pronoun: you
    • 712: Kojiki (page 156)
      大久米命二人、召兄宇迦斯罵詈云、此二字以音所作仕奉於大殿内者、意禮此二字以音先入、明白其將爲仕奉之状而[...]
Usage notes[edit]

Takes the particle .

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
まし
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (masu, to be, honorific).[1]

Alternatively, a shortening of imashi[1][2] (see below).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana まし, rōmaji mashi)

  1. (obsolete, informal) second person pronoun: you
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3440)
      許乃河泊尓 安佐菜安良布児 奈礼毛安礼毛 余知乎曽母弖流 伊仾児多婆里尓 一云 麻之毛安礼母
Usage notes[edit]

Less honorific than both mashi and imashi.

Derived terms[edit]
  •  (いまし) (imashi)
  •  (みまし) (mimashi)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
いまし
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be, honorific).[1]

Possibly also analyzable as a compound of (i, you) +‎ (mashi, presence; being, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す masu, “to be”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana いまし, rōmaji imashi)

  1. (obsolete, polite) second person pronoun: you
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 11, poem 2517)
      足千根乃 母尓障良婆 無用 伊麻思毛吾毛 事應成
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3359)
      駿河能宇美 於思敝尓於布流 波麻都豆良 伊麻思乎多能美 波播尓多我比奴 一云 於夜尓多我比奴
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #29)
      朕子伊末之授給
Usage notes[edit]

More honorific than mashi. Less honorific than mimashi.

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
みまし
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

Compound of (mi, honorific prefix) +‎ (mashi, you).[1] Also analyzable as a shift in meaning of 御座 (mimashi), an honorific term of address or reference used for nobility.[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana みまし, rōmaji mimashi)

  1. (obsolete, honorific) second person pronoun: you
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #5)
      藤原宮天下所知美麻斯坐天皇美麻斯天下之業詔大命聞食恐受賜懼坐事衆聞食宣。可久賜時美麻斯[...]吾子美麻斯授賜[...]
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #51)
      美末斯大臣萬政總以<...> 彌麻之大臣之家内子等乎母<...>美麻之大臣罷道[...]
    • 797: Shoku Nihongi (edict #52)
      大命坐詔美麻斯大臣仕奉來狀[...]
Usage notes[edit]

More honorific than both mashi and imashi.

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly cognate with Korean (neo, you, second-person singular informal pronoun).

Also found in some instances as a self-reference, one, oneself. This sense is more commonly spelled when used in isolation.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean (na, I, first-person singular informal pronoun).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji na)

  1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you
    • 712: Kojiki (poem #5)
      夜知富許能 加微能美許登夜 阿賀淤富久迩奴斯 許曾波 遠迩伊麻世婆 宇知微流 斯麻能佐岐邪岐 加岐微流 伊蘇能佐岐淤知受和加久佐能 都麻母多勢良米 阿波母與 賣迩斯阿禮婆 遠岐弖遠波那志 遠岐弖 都麻波那斯 [...]
    • 720: Nihon Shoki (poem #90)
      飫裒枳瀰能 耶陛能矩瀰哿枳 哿哿梅騰謀 嗚阿摩之耳彌 哿哿農倶彌柯枳
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3353)
      阿良多麻能 伎倍乃波也之尓 乎多弖天 由伎可都麻思自 移乎佐伎太多尼
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3468)
      夜麻杼里乃 乎呂能波都乎尓 可賀美可家 刀奈布倍美許曽 尓与曽利鶏米
    • c. 920: Azuma Asobi Uta (#2)
      衣 和賀世古加 介左乃古止天者 奈奈川乎乃 也川乎乃古止乎 之良部 太留古止也 乎加介也末乃 可川乃介也 乎々々々
  2. (obsolete) first person pronoun: I
  3. (obsolete) self-referential pronoun: one, oneself
    • c. 759: Man'yōshū poem 1755 (text here)
      鴬之 生卵乃中尓 霍公鳥 獨所生而 父尓 似而者不鳴 己母尓 似而者不鳴
      うぐひすの かひごのなかに ほととぎす ひとりうまれて がちちに にてはなかず
      Inside a warbler's egg, a cuckoo was born, but it looked like its own father and did not sing...
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
なれ
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. The long form of (nare). Compound of (na) and suffix (re).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana なれ, rōmaji nare)

  1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3440)
      許乃河泊尓 安佐菜安良布児 奈礼毛安礼毛 余知乎曽母弖流 伊仾児多婆里尓 一云 麻之毛安礼母
    • c. 913 Kokin Wakashū (#904)
      ちはやぶる宇治のはしもり なれをしぞあはれとは思ふ 年のへぬれば

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
なむち
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Compound of (na, you) +‎ (muchi, noble).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana なむち, rōmaji namuchi)

  1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
なむぢ
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

/namuti//namudi//namud͡ʑi/

From earlier なむち (namuchi). Final voicing due to influence of medial voiced /m/.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana なむじ, rōmaji namuji, historical hiragana なむぢ)

  1. (obsolete) second person pronoun: you
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      大納言わらゐて、「なむぢらが君の使と名を流しつ。君の仰ごとをば、いかが背くべき」との給て [...]
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      大納言起きゐてのたまはく、「汝(なむぢ)らよくもて來ずなりぬ。龍は鳴る神のるいにこそありけれ。[...]」

Etymology 9[edit]

Kanji in this term
なんじ
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

/namuti//namudi//nandi//nand͡ʑi/

From earlier なむぢ (namudi).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(hiragana なんじ, rōmaji nanji, historical hiragana なんぢ)

  1. (archaic) second person pronoun: you
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      汝(なんぢ)が持ちて侍るかぐや姫たてまつれ。」
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      いはく、「汝(なんぢ)、おさなき人、いささかなる功徳を翁つくりけるによりて、汝(なんぢ)が助けにとて、かた時のほどとて下ししを[...]」

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune-Reischauer yŏ, Yale ye)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhớ, nhở, nhởi, nhứ, nhử, nhữ, dử, nhừ, nở)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.