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U+6C5D, 汝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5D

[U+6C5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C5E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水女 (EV), four-corner 34140, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 606, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1555, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6C5D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms “you”
Min “you” (colloquial)

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njaʔ): semantic  (river; water) + phonetic  (OC *naʔ, *nas).

Etymology[edit]

“river”
Probably related to Proto-Kam-Sui *Ɂnjaᴬ (river), whence Southern Kam nyal (river), Sui qnyal (Schuessler, 2007).
“you”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • lú - literary.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • jí/ní - literary.
  • mainstream Taiwan:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • jú/lú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: le2 / lu2 / re2 / ru2
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: lṳ́ / lú / jṳ́ / jú
    • Sinological IPA (key): /lɯ⁵²/, /lu⁵²/, /d͡zɯ⁵²/, /d͡zu⁵²/
  • Note:
    • le2/lu2 - vernacular;
    • re2/ru2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naʔ/
    English you (sg.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njaʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (, ) Ru River, a northern tributary of the Huai River in modern-day southern Henan province. The name also refers to the Hong River in its lower reaches, which now shares a common course with the Ru, as well as a southern tributary of the Hong.
    2. (literary or coastal Min) thou, you (second-person pronoun)
    3. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Thai: ลื้อ (lʉ́ʉ)
    • Indonesian: lu, lo, elu

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なんじ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    /na mut͡ɕi//namʉd͡ʑi//nand͡ʑi/

    Originally a compound of (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 3 below) +‎ (muchi, noble).[1][2]

    Also written as なむぢ (namuji) in older texts, since the namuchi, namuji, and nanji readings likely existed in free variation until the development of the (n) grapheme.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (なんじ) (nanji (historical kana なんぢ)

    1. (archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Idioms[edit]
    Proverbs[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    なれ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Derived from (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 3 below) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (なれ) (nare

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    Irregular
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly cognate with second-person singular informal pronoun Korean (neo).

    Pronoun[edit]

    () (na

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    うぬ
    Jinmeiyō
    Irregular
    Alternative spelling

    Sound shift from reflexive pronoun (ono), Old Japanese (ono2).[2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (うぬ) (unu

    1. (vulgar) second-person pronoun: you
    2. (derogatory) first- or third-person reflexive pronoun: me, myself, himself, herself, itself, oneself
      Synonym: 自分自身 (jibun-jishin)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Interjection[edit]

    (うぬ) (unu

    1. (vulgar) used as an insult to the second person: you!
      Synonym: (onore)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しゃ
    Jinmeiyō
    Irregular

    ⟨si⟩/ɕi//ɕa/

    Shift from Old Japanese (si) of the same meaning.

    Pronoun[edit]

    (しゃ) (sha

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    いまし
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be, honorific).[1]

    Possibly also analyzable as a compound of (i-, a rare Old Japanese second person singular pronoun) +‎ (mashi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す masu, “to be”).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (いまし) (imashi

    1. (honorific, archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune–Reischauer yŏ, Yale ye)

    1. you
    2. the name of water, river[1]
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]


    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Proto-Japonic *na, cognate with (na, name). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Alternatively, possibly a borrowing from Old Korean; compare modern Korean (neo, you). Also found in some instances as a self-reference, one, oneself. This sense is more commonly spelled when used in isolation,[1] therefore also cognate with first-person singular informal pronoun Korean (na).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (na) (kana )

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    2. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    3. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) third-person reflexive pronoun: one, oneself, itself
      Synonym: (ono2)
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (na)
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 1 above) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (nare) (kana なれ)

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (nare)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Cognate with (si, third-person pronoun) and (si, reflexive pronoun). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (si) (kana )

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (sha)

    Etymology 4[edit]

    The nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be).

    Alternatively, analyzable as a compound of (i, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 6 below) +‎ 坐し (masi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す (masu), “to be”).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (imasi) (kana いまし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notes[edit]

    More honorific than masi (see Etymology 5 below), but less honorific than mi1masi (see Etymology 6 below).

    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Descendants[edit]
    • Japanese: (imashi)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    The nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of honorific verb 坐す (masu, to be).[1]

    Alternatively, a shortening of imasi (see Etymology 3 above).[1][2]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (masi) (kana まし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notes[edit]

    Less honorific than both imasi (see Etymology 4 above) and mi1masi (see Etymology 6 below).

    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Compound of (mi1-, honorific prefix) +‎ (masi, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 4 above).[1]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (mi1masi) (kana みまし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notes[edit]

    More honorific than both imasi (see Etymology 4 above) and masi (see Etymology 5 above).

    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Possibly a borrowing from Old Korean, compare modern Korean (i, this person). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronoun[edit]

    (i) (kana )

    1. (rare, possibly derogatory) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nhớ, nhở, nhởi, nhứ, nhử, nhữ, dử, nhừ, nở)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.