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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
能-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 130 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈月心心 (IBPP), four-corner 21211, composition匕)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 981, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29454
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1433, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2074, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+80FD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
能-oracle.svg 能-bronze.svg 能-bigseal.svg 能-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形): bear. Compare (OC *ɢʷlɯm, “bear”).

Etymology[edit]

“Be able to; can; ability”. Shijing rhymes point to Old Chinese *, but the forms with * are also archaic (perhaps ancient dialectal variation?).

Possibly Sino–Tibetan: compare Tibetan ནུས་པ ‎(nus pa, be able to; capable; to withstand; capacity; strength; force; power; function; energy), Burmese နိုင် ‎(nuing, can, be able to, may; master; win; prevail). Schuessler (2007) also derives (OC *n̥ʰɯːs, “apparition, bearing, manner”) from this.

Compare the old Sino–Vietnamese loanword nổi ‎(be able to; capable).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nəŋ³⁵/
Harbin /nəŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /nəŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /nəŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /nəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nəŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /nəŋ²⁴/
Xining /nə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /nəŋ⁴⁴/ 打~~
/nəŋ⁵³/ ~幹
Lanzhou /lə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /nɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /nən³¹/
Guiyang /nen²¹/
Kunming /nə̃³¹/
Nanjing /lən²⁴/
Hefei /lən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /nəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /nə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /nəŋ¹³/
Suzhou /nən¹³/
Hangzhou /nen²¹³/
Wenzhou /naŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lən¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /nen¹¹/
Taoyuan /nen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nɐŋ²¹/
Nanning /nɐŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /nɐŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɛiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /naiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /leŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /neŋ³¹/
/nɔŋ³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/4

Initial: (8)
Final: (41)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: nái
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nʌi/ /nəi/ /nɒi/ /nəj/ /nᴀi/ /nɒi/ /nɑ̆i/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/4

Initial: (8)
Final: (129)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: néng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nəŋ/ /nəŋ/ /nəŋ/ /nəŋ/ /nəŋ/ /nəŋ/ /nəŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/4

Initial: (8)
Final: (129)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: něng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nəŋX/ /nəŋX/ /nəŋX/ /nəŋX/ /nəŋX/ /nəŋX/ /nəŋX/
Character (), Pronunciation 4/4

Initial: (8)
Final: (41)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: nài
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nʌiH/ /nəiH/ /nɒiH/ /nəjH/ /nᴀiH/ /nɒiH/ /nɑ̆iH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
néng ‹ noj › /*nˤə/ a kind of bear
néng ‹ nong › /*nˤə(ŋ)/ a kind of bear
néng ‹ nong › /*nˤə(ʔ) (~ *nˤəŋ)/ able; ability

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9411 0 /*nɯː/
9413 0 /*nɯːs/
9415 0 /*nɯːŋ/
9416 0 /*nɯːŋʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. A mythological bear-like animal, with deer-like legs.
  2. able; capable
  3. can; to be able to; to be capable of
      ―  néng pǎo de kuài.  ―  I can run fast.
  4. may
  5. rather; would rather
  6. ability; capability
      ―  néng  ―  capability, ability
  7. talent; talented person
      ―  cáinéng  ―  talent, ability
  8. energy; power
  9. A surname​. Neng

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 4/4

Initial: (8)
Final: (41)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: nài
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nʌiH/ /nəiH/ /nɒiH/ /nəjH/ /nᴀiH/ /nɒiH/ /nɑ̆iH/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (“to bear; to withstand”).
  2. A surname​.

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (“name of a Chinese constellation”).
      ―  sāntái  ―  Santai (Chinese constellation)

Pronunciation 4[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (tài, “bearing, apparition, form, shape, status, position”).

Pronunciation 5[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/4

Initial: (8)
Final: (41)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: nái
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/nʌi/ /nəi/ /nɒi/ /nəj/ /nᴀi/ /nɒi/ /nɑ̆i/

Definitions[edit]

  1. A three-legged soft-shelled turtle.

Pronunciation 6[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 能始 (“origin, root cause”).

Pronunciation 7[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (xióng, “bear”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia ja

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. ability
  2. talent
  3. skill
  4. capacity

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana のう, romaji )

  1. Noh, a form of classical Japanese musical drama.
  2. Ability, capacity, aptitude.
  3. Effect, use.
     (ふる)議論 (ぎろん) () (かえ)しても (のう)はないのだよ。
    Furui giron o kurikaeshite mo wa nai no da yo.
    Repeating old arguments isn't of any use / won't have any effect.

Synonyms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(neung, nae) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer nŭng, nae, Yale nung, nay)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(năng, hay, nấng, năn, nằng, nưng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.