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See also:
U+80FD, 能
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-80FD

[U+80FC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+80FE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
能-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 130, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈月心心 (IBPP), four-corner 21211, composition𫧇)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 981, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29454
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1433, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2074, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+80FD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𦝕
𫧇 second round simplified and variant

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
能-oracle.svg 能-bronze.svg 能-bronze-spring.svg 能-bronze-warring.svg 能-silk.svg 能-slip.svg 能-seal.svg 能-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): bear. Compare (OC *ɢʷlɯm, “bear”).

Etymology[edit]

“be able to; can; ability”
Shijing rhymes point to Old Chinese *, but the forms with * are also archaic (perhaps ancient dialectal variation?).
Possibly Sino–Tibetan: compare Tibetan ནུས (nus, be able to; capable; to withstand; capacity; strength; force; power; function; energy), Burmese နိုင် (nuing, can, be able to, may; master; win; prevail). Schuessler (2007) also derives (OC *n̥ʰɯːs, “apparition, bearing, manner”) from this.
Compare the old Sino–Vietnamese loanword nổi (be able to; capable).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nəŋ³⁵/
Harbin /nəŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /nəŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /nəŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /nəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nəŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /nəŋ²⁴/
Xining /nə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /nəŋ⁴⁴/ 打~~
/nəŋ⁵³/ ~幹
Lanzhou /lə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /nɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /nən³¹/
Guiyang /nen²¹/
Kunming /nə̃³¹/
Nanjing /lən²⁴/
Hefei /lən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /nəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /nə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /nəŋ²³/
Suzhou /nən¹³/
Hangzhou /nen²¹³/
Wenzhou /naŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lən¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /nen¹¹/
Taoyuan /nen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nɐŋ²¹/
Nanning /nɐŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /nɐŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɛiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /naiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /leŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /neŋ³¹/
/nɔŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/4
Initial () (8)
Final () (129)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nəŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/nəŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəŋ/
Li
Rong
/nəŋ/
Wang
Li
/nəŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nəŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
néng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
néng néng néng
Middle
Chinese
‹ noj › ‹ nong › ‹ nong ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁə/ /*nˁə(ŋ)/ /*nˁə(ʔ)/ (~ *nˁəŋ)
English a kind of bear a kind of bear able; ability

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/4
No. 9415
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (Chinese mythology) A mythological bear-like animal, with deer-like legs.
  2. able; capable
  3. can; to be able to; to be capable of
      ―  néng pǎo de kuài.  ―  I can run fast.
    /   ―  Yǒu rén néng bāng wǒ ma?  ―  Is there anybody who can help me?
    高潮這個海灘散步 [MSC, trad.]
    高潮这个海滩散步 [MSC, simp.]
    Gāocháo shí nǐ bù néng zài zhège hǎitān sànbù. [Pinyin]
    You can't walk along this beach at high tide.
  4. may; could
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Néngnéng qǐng nǐ bāng ge máng? [Pinyin]
    May I ask a favour of you?
    一遍 / 一遍  ―  néng zài shuō yībiàn ma?  ―  Could you repeat that?
  5. rather; would rather
  6. ability; capability
      ―  néng  ―  capability, ability
  7. talent; talented person
      ―  cáinéng  ―  talent, ability
  8. energy; power
    太陽 / 太阳  ―  tàiyángnéng  ―  solar energy
      ―  shuǐnéng  ―  hydroelectric power
    /   ―  dòngnéng  ―  kinetic energy
  9. A surname​. Neng
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 4/4
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəjH/
Li
Rong
/nᴀiH/
Wang
Li
/nɒiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nài
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/4
No. 9413
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (nài, “to bear; to withstand”).
  2. A surname​.

Pronunciation 3[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (“name of a Chinese constellation”).
      ―  sāntái  ―  Santai (Chinese constellation)

Pronunciation 4[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (tài, “bearing; apparition; form; shape; status; position”).

Pronunciation 5[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/4
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəi/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəj/
Li
Rong
/nᴀi/
Wang
Li
/nɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nái
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
néng
Middle
Chinese
‹ noj ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁə/
English a kind of bear

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/4
No. 9411
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. A three-legged soft-shelled turtle.

Pronunciation 6[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 能始 (“origin, root cause”).

Pronunciation 7[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (xióng, “bear”).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. ability
  2. talent
  3. skill
  4. capacity

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(のう) (

  1. Noh, a form of classical Japanese musical drama.
  2. Ability, capacity, aptitude.
  3. Effect, use.
    (ふる)()(ろん)()(かえ)しても(のう)はないのだよ。
    Furui giron o kurikaeshite mo wa nai no da yo.
    Repeating old arguments isn't of any use / won't have any effect.

Synonyms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC nəŋ).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 능할 (neunghal neung))

  1. Hanja form? of (ability).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Related to Middle Chinese (MC nʌiH).

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 견딜 (gyeondil nae))

  1. (literary Chinese) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (endure; withstand).)

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: năng, hay, nấng, năn, nằng, nưng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.