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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 尸戈心 (SIP), four-corner 17332, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 376, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10312
  • Dae Jaweon: page 702, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2271, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+5FCD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njɯnʔ): phonetic  ‎(OC *njɯns, blade) + semantic  ‎(heart).

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐən²¹⁴/
Harbin /ʐən²¹³/
Tianjin /in¹³/
/ʐən¹³/
Jinan /ʐẽ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iə̃⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʐən⁵³/
Xi'an /ʐẽ⁵³/
Xining /ʐə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐə̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən⁴²/
Chengdu /zən⁵³/
Guiyang /zen⁴²/
Kunming /ʐə̃⁵³/
Nanjing /ʐən²¹²/
Hefei /ʐən²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /zəŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /ʐəŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐə̃ŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiŋ¹³/
/zəŋ¹³/
Suzhou /zən³¹/
Hangzhou /zen¹³/
Wenzhou /ȵaŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /niʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /ȵin²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʐən⁴¹/
Xiangtan /in⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ȵɨn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiun⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐn³⁵/
Nanning /jɐn²⁴/
Hong Kong /jɐn³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lim⁵³/
/lun⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /neiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zim⁵³/
/luŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zin²¹³/
/zun²¹³/
/nun²¹³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (38)
Final: (43)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: rěn
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵiɪnX/ /ȵinX/ /ȵʑjenX/ /ȵinX/ /ȵiĕnX/ /ȵʑĭĕnX/ /ȵʑi̯ĕnX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
rěn ‹ nyinX › /*nə[n]ʔ/ cruel
rěn ‹ nyinX › /*nə[n]ʔ/ endure

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10828 1 /*njɯnʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to endure; to bear; to suffer
  2. to forbear
      ―  rěn xiào  ―  to stifle a laugh
    眼淚 / 眼泪  ―  rěn zhe yǎnlèi  ―  to hold back tears

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. patience, endurance, stamina.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しのぶ, romaji Shinobu)

  1. A male or female given name
  2. A surname​.

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(in)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: in, McCune-Reischauer: in, Yale: in)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhẫn, nhịn, những, nhẩn, nhẵn)

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