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U+542B, 含
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-542B

[U+542A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+542C]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓口 (OINR), four-corner 80602, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 178, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3350
  • Dae Jaweon: page 395, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 592, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+542B

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
variant forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
含-bronze.svg 含-silk.svg 含-seal.svg 含-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰl'uːm
*l̥ʰuːmʔ
*l̥ʰuːms, *luːms
*qʰɯːm, *qlamʔ, *qlɯːms
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːmʔ, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*qɯːm, *qaːb
*qɯːm, *qrɯːms
*krɯːm
*qʰrɯːm, *kʰjam, *qʰlɯːm, *ɡrɯms
*qʰrɯːmʔ, *qʰram, *kʰlam, *kʰlamʔ, *qʰlɯːm
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*ɡram
*ɡram
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*nɯːms
*sɡɯm, *sɡrɯm
*sɢrɯm
*sɡrɯm
*sɡrɯm, *ɡrɯms
*sɡrɯm
*ɡjɯms
*krɯm
*krɯm
*krɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯmʔ
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*qʰrɯm, *qʰrɯmʔ
*qrɯm
*qrɯmʔ, *qrɯms
*qrɯms
*qrɯms
*ɡrɯn, *ɡɯn, *kɯŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡɯːm): phonetic  (OC *krɯm) + semantic  (mouth).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • gàng - vernacular;
  • hàng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kâm/kâⁿ - vernacular;
    • hâm - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xan³⁵/
    Harbin /xan²⁴/
    Tianjin /xan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /xã⁴²/
    Qingdao /xã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /xan⁴²/
    Xi'an /xã²⁴/
    Xining /xã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xan²¹³/
    Chengdu /xan³¹/
    Guiyang /xan²¹/
    Kunming /xã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /xaŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /xæ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /xɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /xæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦø²³/
    Suzhou /ɦø¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦø³¹/
    /gaŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xɛ⁴⁴/
    /kʰɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi
    Xiang Changsha /xan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /hɵn²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /ham¹¹/
    Taoyuan /hɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐm²¹/
    Nanning /hɐm²¹/
    Hong Kong /hɐm²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ham³⁵/
    /kam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /aŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ham⁵⁵/
    /kam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ham³¹/
    /kam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦʌm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɒm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəm/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣᴀm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɒm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣăm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hom ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-m-kˁ[ə]m/
    English hold in the mouth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6560
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡɯːm/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to hold or keep in the mouth
      / [Cantonese]  ―  ham4 zyu6 zi1 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to hold a cigarette in the mouth
    2. to bear; to endure
    3. to contain inside; to comprise; to include
      油漆 / 油漆  ―  hánqiān yóuqī  ―  lead paint
      /   ―  yǎnlǐ hánzhe lèi  ―  tears in the eyes
    4. to harbor (emotion); to nurse; to endure; to hold back
        ―  hánhèn  ―  to nurse hatred
    5. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (to hold in the mouth): (xián)

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ homH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-m-[k]ˁ[ə]m-s/
    English to put in the mouth

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (hán, “gems and pearls stuffed into a corpse's mouth”).
    2. to put gems and pearls into a corpse's mouth

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ham) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hàm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.