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See also:
U+9837, 頷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9837

[U+9836]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9838]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 181 +7, 16 strokes, cangjie input 人口一月金 (ORMBC) or X人口一月 (XORMB), four-corner 81686, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1405, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43512
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1922, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4375, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+9837

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰl'uːm
*l̥ʰuːmʔ
*l̥ʰuːms, *luːms
*qʰɯːm, *qlamʔ, *qlɯːms
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːmʔ, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*qɯːm, *qaːb
*qɯːm, *qrɯːms
*krɯːm
*qʰrɯːm, *kʰjam, *qʰlɯːm, *ɡrɯms
*qʰrɯːmʔ, *qʰram, *kʰlam, *kʰlamʔ, *qʰlɯːm
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*ɡram
*ɡram
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*nɯːms
*sɡɯm, *sɡrɯm
*sɢrɯm
*sɡrɯm
*sɡrɯm, *ɡrɯms
*sɡrɯm
*ɡjɯms
*krɯm
*krɯm
*krɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯmʔ
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*qʰrɯm, *qʰrɯmʔ
*qrɯm
*qrɯm
*qrɯmʔ, *qrɯms
*qrɯms
*qrɯms
*ɡrɯn, *ɡɯn, *kɯŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ): phonetic  (OC *ɡɯːm) + semantic  (head).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gam (jaw; chin; molar) (STEDT).

Bodman (1980) considers it to be the endoactive of (OC *ɡɯːm, “to hold in the mouth”), literally “the thing that holds something in the mouth”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ngâm - “chin”;
  • ngám - “to nod”.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ām/ǎm - vernacular (“neck”);
    • hām/hǎm - literary (other senses).
    Note:
    • am6 - vernacular (“neck”);
    • ham5 - literary (other senses).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (159) (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦʌm/ /ɦʌmX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəm/ /ɦəmX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɒm/ /ɣɒmX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəm/ /ɦəmX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣᴀm/ /ɣᴀmX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɒm/ /ɣɒmX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣăm/ /ɣămX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán hàn
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ homX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˤ[ə]mʔ/
    English jaw, chin

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 6562 6568
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡɯːm/ /*ɡɯːmʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. chin; jowl
    2. to nod
      /   ―  hànshǒu  ―  to nod
    3. (Min Nan) neck
    4. A surname​.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 下巴 (“chin”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 下巴下頦下頜下頷
    Mandarin Beijing 下巴頦兒下巴
    Taiwan 下巴
    Harbin 下巴頦兒下巴
    Hailar 下巴頦子
    Ulan Hot 下巴頦子
    Tongliao 下巴頦子
    Chifeng 下巴
    Bayanhot 下巴
    Jinan 下巴頦兒下巴頦子下巴
    Muping 牙幫頦兒牙幫
    Luoyang 下巴兒下巴頦兒
    Jiedian 下巴子
    Xi'an 下巴兒下巴子下巴
    Xining 下巴
    Xuzhou 下嘴巴子下巴頦兒下巴頦子
    Yinchuan 下巴子
    Lanzhou 下巴子
    Ürümqi 下巴頦兒下巴
    Wuhan 下巴
    Chengdu 下巴兒下巴
    Guiyang 下巴
    Guilin 下巴
    Liuzhou 下巴
    Yangzhou 下巴頦子下巴鼓子下巴
    Nanjing 下巴頦下巴
    Hefei 下頦子下巴頦子下巴頦
    Nantong 下巴頦兒
    Cantonese Guangzhou 下巴
    Hong Kong 下巴
    Shunde 下巴
    Zhongshan 下巴
    Dongguan 下巴
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 下巴
    Taishan 下巴
    Doumen 下巴
    Kaiping 下巴
    Shaoguan 下巴
    Yunfu 下巴
    Yangjiang 下巴
    Lianjiang 頷突下巴
    Nanning 下巴
    Wuzhou 下巴
    Yulin 下巴
    Hepu 下巴
    Kuala Lumpur 下巴
    Gan Nanchang 下巴
    Lichuan 下腮角下腮
    Pingxiang 下頜下牙鉸
    Hakka Meixian 嘴頷下頷
    Xingning 下頷
    Huidong 下頷下巴
    Qujiang 下巴
    Xiaosanjiang 下頷
    Luchuan 合巴
    Changting 下頷下巴
    Pingyu 下頷
    Wuping 下嘴頷
    Liancheng 下瘩
    Ninghua 下瘩
    Yudu 下牙巴牙交
    Ruijin 下巴
    Shicheng 下瘩下缽
    Shangyou 下牙窖
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 下頷下胲
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 下嘴頷下頷下胲
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 下頷下胲
    Dongshi (Dabu) 下頷
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 下頷下胲
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 下頷下頜
    Hong Kong 胲頷下
    Sabah 下巴下頷
    Senai 下巴
    Singkawang 下頷嘴頷
    Huizhou Jixi 下巴
    Jin Taiyuan 下巴頦子下巴
    Xinzhou 下脖子下頦子
    Baochang 下巴
    Jining 下頦
    Hohhot 下頦子
    Baotou 下頦
    Dongsheng 下巴頦兒
    Linhe 下頦子
    Haibowan 下巴
    Min Bei Jian'ou 下巴
    Min Dong Fuzhou 下頦下巴
    Fuqing 下巴
    Matsu 下頦
    Min Nan Xiamen 下頦下斗喙下斗下𦜆下顎
    Quanzhou 下頦下斗喙下斗下頷下顎
    Zhangzhou 下頦下斗喙下斗下𦜆下顎
    Taipei 下頦
    Kaohsiung 下頦
    Tainan 喙下斗下頦
    Taichung 下頦下斗
    Wuqi 下頦
    Hsinchu 下頦
    Taitung 下頦
    Lukang 下頦
    Sanxia 下顎
    Yilan 下頦
    Kinmen 下頦下顎
    Magong 下頦喙斗下顎
    Penang 喙下斗
    Singapore 下斗
    Pingnan 下巴
    Chaozhou 下頦
    Shantou 下頦
    Johor Bahru 下頦
    Haikou 顎頭下巴
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning 下巴
    Guilin 下巴
    Wu Shanghai 下巴地角
    Suzhou 下巴
    Hangzhou 下巴
    Wenzhou 下巴
    Chongming 下巴下巴殼子
    Danyang 頦巴
    Jinhua 下巴
    Ningbo 下巴
    Xiang Changsha 下巴下頦
    Shuangfeng 下力頦下頦
    Loudi 下頜
    Quanzhou 下巴
    Dialectal synonyms of 脖子 (“neck”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 頸項
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 頸項頸部
    Mandarin Beijing 脖子
    Taiwan 脖子
    Harbin 脖子
    Shenyang 脖子
    Hailar 脖子
    Ulan Hot 脖子
    Tongliao 脖子
    Chifeng 脖子
    Bayanhot 脖子脖頸
    Jinan 脖子
    Muping 脖子
    Luoyang 脖子
    Jiedian 脖項脖子
    Xi'an 脖項脖子
    Qingdao 脖頸子
    Zhengzhou 脖子
    Xining 脖板脖脖
    Xuzhou 脖頸子脖了頸子
    Yinchuan 脖子
    Lanzhou 脖子
    Ürümqi 脖子
    Wuhan 頸子頸框
    Chengdu 頸項脖子頸子
    Guiyang 脖頸
    Liuzhou 頸脖
    Kunming 脖子
    Yangzhou 頸項頸亢
    Nanjing 頸子脖子
    Hefei 腦頸把子
    Nantong 頸項頸亢
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Foshan
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Taishan
    Doumen
    Kaiping
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang 頸柄
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 頸牯
    Hakka Meixian 頸根
    Xingning
    Huidong
    Qujiang
    Xiaosanjiang
    Changting
    Pingyu 頸根
    Wuping 頸根
    Liancheng 頸骨
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 頸根
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 頸根
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 頸根
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 頸根
    Dongshi (Dabu) 頸根
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 頸根
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang 頸根
    Huizhou Shexian 頭頸項頸
    Tunxi 頭頸
    Jixi 扣頸脰頸
    Jin Taiyuan 脖子
    Xinzhou 脖子
    Baochang 脖子
    Jining 脖頸
    Hohhot 脖子
    Baotou 脖頸
    Dongsheng 脖子
    Linhe 脖頸
    Haibowan 脖頸
    Min Bei Jian'ou 仲仲
    Min Dong Fuzhou 脰骨
    Changle 脰骨
    Fuqing 脰脖筋脰脖株
    Yongtai 脰骨
    Gutian 脰穩
    Fu'an 脰穩
    Ningde 脰穩
    Shouning 脰領
    Zhouning 脰引
    Fuding 脰穩
    Matsu 脰脖
    Min Nan Xiamen 頷頸脰項
    Quanzhou 頷胿
    Zhangzhou 頷頸頷仔
    Taipei 頷頸仔
    Kaohsiung 頷頸
    Tainan 頷胿頷頸仔頷仔頸
    Taichung 頷仔頸
    Wuqi 頷頸
    Hsinchu 頷頸
    Taitung 頷頸仔
    Lukang 頷頸
    Sanxia 頷頸
    Yilan 頷頸頷頸仔
    Kinmen 頷頸
    Magong 頷頸
    Penang 頷仔頸
    Philippines (Manila) 頷胿
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang 脰蒂根
    Haikou 脰蒂
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian 脰顱
    Xianyou 脰顱
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 頭頸頭頸骨
    Suzhou 頭頸
    Hangzhou 脰頸脖子
    Wenzhou 頭頸
    Chongming 頸骨
    Danyang 頸梗
    Jinhua 項頸
    Tangxi 頭頸
    Ningbo 頭頸骨頭頸
    Xiang Changsha 頸根頸箍
    Shuangfeng 頸殼
    Xiangtan 頸筋
    Loudi 頸頜頸筋

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (am) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hạm, ham, hàm, hợm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.