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U+541F, 吟
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-541F

[U+541E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5420]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30 +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 口人戈弓 (ROIN), four-corner 68027, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 177, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 395, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 591, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+541F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Large seal script Small seal script
吟-bigseal.svg 吟-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰluːm'
*l̥ʰuːmʔ
*l̥ʰuːms, *luːms
*qʰɯːm, *qlamʔ, *qlɯːms
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːmʔ, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*qɯːm, *qaːb
*qɯːm, *qrɯːms
*krɯːm
*qʰrɯːm, *kʰjam, *qʰlɯːm, *ɡrɯms
*qʰrɯːmʔ, *qʰram, *kʰlam, *kʰlamʔ, *qʰlɯːm
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*ɡram
*ɡram
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*nɯːms
*sɡɯm, *sɡrɯm
*sɢrɯm
*sɡrɯm
*sɡrɯm, *ɡrɯms
*sɡrɯm
*ɡjɯms
*krɯm
*krɯm
*krɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯmʔ
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*qʰrɯm, *qʰrɯmʔ
*qrɯm
*qrɯm
*qrɯmʔ, *qrɯms
*qrɯms
*qrɯms
*ɡrɯn, *ɡɯn, *kɯŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms): semantic  + phonetic (OC *krɯm).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (31) (31)
Final () (140) (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () Chongniu III Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠiɪm/ /ŋˠiɪmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚim/ /ŋᵚimH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiem/ /ŋiemH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋjim/ /ŋjimH/
Li
Rong
/ŋjəm/ /ŋjəmH/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭĕm/ /ŋĭĕmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯əm/ /ŋi̯əmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yín yìn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yín
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngim ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-qʰ(r)[ə]m/
English chant, intone

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 6618 6620
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋɡrɯm/ /*ŋɡrɯms/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to recite; to chant
  2. to groan
  3. (literature) a type of poetry
  4. (of birds or insects) to sing

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(eum) (hangeul , revised eum, McCune-Reischauer ŭm)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngâm, gặm, gẫm, ngăm, ngăn, ngậm, ngẫm, gầm, ngẩm, ngắm, ngợm)

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