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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓心 (OINP), four-corner 80332, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 378, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10390
  • Dae Jaweon: page 706, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2274, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5FF5

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
念-bronze.svg 念-bigseal.svg 念-seal.svg

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-njam. Cognate with Tibetan ཉམ ‎(nyam), ཉམས ‎(nyams, soul, mind, heart), སྙམ་པ ‎(snyam pa, to think, to feel) (Quan, 1996). Related to (OC *njɯm, *njɯmʔ, “to think, to miss”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (157)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nemH/
Pan
Wuyun
/nemH/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛmH/
Li
Rong
/nemH/
Wang
Li
/niemH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/niemH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
niàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
niàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nemH ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤim-s/
English think of

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6588
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːms/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to miss; to long for; to think of; to recall
  2. to consider; to contemplate
  3. Alternative form of (niàn, “to read aloud; to read out”).
  4. to study; to learn
  5. Alternative form of 廿 (niàn, “twenty”).
  6. to worry; to be anxious about
  7. to feel compassion for; to pity
  8. to show tender affection for
  9. to commemorate; to memorialise; to pay tribute to
  10. idea; thought
  11. (Buddhism) memory
  12. A surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see ("to read aloud").
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ねん, romaji nen)

  1. sense
  2. feeling

Compounds[edit]

  • 念仏 (ねんぶつ, nenbutsu)
  • 四念処 (しねんじょ, shinenjo) : Maha SatiPatthana

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nyeom, yeom) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer nyŏm, yŏm, Yale nyem, yem)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(niệm, niềm, núm)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.