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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Old Chinese *niəm (Middle Chinese 去), *njəm (MC 上) (Li Fanggui (1971)). Cognate with Old Tibetan ཉམ, ཉམས ‎(nyam(s), soul, mind, heart), སྙམ་པ ‎(snyam-pa, to think, to mind).[1]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓心 (OINP), four-corner 80332, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 378, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10390
  • Dae Jaweon: page 706, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2274, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5FF5
  1. ^ 《汉藏语同源词综探》,全广镇

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (念), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 泥 (8)
Final: 添
Division: IV

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 奴店切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/nemH/ /niemH/ /nemH/ /nemH/ /nɛmH/ /niemH/ /nɛmH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
niàn ‹ nemH › /*nˤim-s/ think of

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
6588 1 /*nɯːms/ 或以心含會意

Definitions[edit]

  1. think of, recall, study
  2. (same as 廿) twenty (20)

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ねん, romaji nen)

  1. sense
  2. feeling

Compounds[edit]

  • 念仏 (ねんぶつ, nenbutsu)
  • 四念処 (しねんじょ, shinenjo) : Maha SatiPatthana

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(nyeom, yeom) (hangeul , , revised nyeom, nyum, yeom, yum, McCune-Reischauer nyŏm, yŏm, Yale nyem, yem)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(niệm, niềm, núm)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.