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See also:
U+5FF5, 念
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FF5

[U+5FF4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FF6]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓心 (OINP), four-corner 80332, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 378, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10390
  • Dae Jaweon: page 706, character 21
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2274, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5FF5

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
念-oracle.svg 念-bronze.svg 念-bronze-spring.svg 念-bronze-warring.svg 念-silk.svg 念-seal.svg 念-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰl'uːm
*l̥ʰuːmʔ
*l̥ʰuːms, *luːms
*qʰɯːm, *qlamʔ, *qlɯːms
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːmʔ, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*qɯːm, *qaːb
*qɯːm, *qrɯːms
*krɯːm
*qʰrɯːm, *kʰjam, *qʰlɯːm, *ɡrɯms
*qʰrɯːmʔ, *qʰram, *kʰlam, *kʰlamʔ, *qʰlɯːm
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*ɡram
*ɡram
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*nɯːms
*sɡɯm, *sɡrɯm
*sɢrɯm
*sɡrɯm
*sɡrɯm, *ɡrɯms
*sɡrɯm
*ɡjɯms
*krɯm
*krɯm
*krɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯmʔ
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*qʰrɯm, *qʰrɯmʔ
*qrɯm
*qrɯmʔ, *qrɯms
*qrɯms
*qrɯms
*ɡrɯn, *ɡɯn, *kɯŋ

Etymology[edit]

trad.
simp. #

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-njam. Cognate with Tibetan ཉམ (nyam), ཉམས (nyams, soul, mind, heart), སྙམ (snyam, to think, to feel) (Quan, 1996). Related to (OC *njɯm, *njɯmʔ, “to think, to miss”).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (157)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nemH/
Pan
Wuyun
/nemH/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɛmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nɛmH/
Li
Rong
/nemH/
Wang
Li
/niemH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/niemH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
niàn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
niàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nemH ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤim-s/
English think of

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6588
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːms/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to miss; to long for; to think of; to recall
  2. to consider; to contemplate
  3. Alternative form of 廿 (niàn, “twenty”).
  4. to worry; to be anxious about
  5. to feel compassion for; to pity
  6. to show tender affection for
  7. to commemorate; to memorialise; to pay tribute to
  8. idea; thought
  9. (Buddhism) memory
  10. A surname​.

Pronunciation 2[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Definitions[edit]

  1. to read aloud; to chant
  2. to study; to learn

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ねん, rōmaji nen)

  1. sense
  2. feeling

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(nyeom>yeom) (hangeul >)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(niệm, niềm, núm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.