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See also:
U+6041, 恁
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6041

[U+6040]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6042]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人土心 (OGP), four-corner 22331, composition)

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 383, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 713, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2291, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6041

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nɯm, *njɯm, *njɯms
*nɯm, *njɯm, *njɯms
*nɯmʔ
*nɯms
*njɯm, *njɯms
*l̥ʰeːŋʔ, *njɯm
*njɯm, *njɯmʔ
*njɯm, *njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯmʔ
*njɯms
*njɯms

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njɯm, *njɯmʔ): phonetic  (OC *njɯm, *njɯms) + semantic  (heart).

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𢗖
“to think”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-njam (to think). Cognate with (OC *nɯːms, “to think”). See there for more.

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (38) (38)
Final () (139) (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪm/ /ȵiɪmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵim/ /ȵimX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjem/ /ȵʑjemX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵim/ /ȵimX/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəm/ /ȵiəmX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕm/ /ȵʑĭĕmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əm/ /ȵʑi̯əmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén rěn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rèn
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyimX ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[ə]mʔ/
English think

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 10812 10817
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njɯm/ /*njɯmʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to think of; to reminisce
  2. to allow
    Synonyms: 任憑任凭 (rènpíng)
  3. honest
  4. weak

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms Hakka
Hakka
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Uncertain. Some postulate that it is from the fusion of 那物

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • jam6 - original reading;
  • jam5 - vernacular reading.
  • Hakka
  • Min Nan
  • Definitions[edit]

    1. (literary or dialectal) so
    2. (literary or dialectal) this; that
    3. (literary or dialectal) how
    4. (literary or dialectal) what
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 這麼 (“so; such (modifies adj.)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 如此
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 這麼
    Mandarin Beijing 這麼
    Taiwan 這麼
    Harbin 這麼
    Jinan 這麼
    Muping 這麼
    Luoyang
    Wanrong 這麼
    Xi'an 這們,
    Xining 這們
    Xuzhou 恁麼
    Yinchuan 這麼
    Lanzhou 這們
    Ürümqi 這麼
    Wuhan 這麼, 這樣, 這個樣子
    Chengdu 這們, 這麼
    Guiyang 仲個
    Guilin 這樣
    Liuzhou ,
    Yangzhou 這們
    Nanjing 這麼, 這樣子
    Nantong 格麼
    Malaysia 這樣
    Singapore 這樣
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Foshan
    Taishan
    Dongguan 呢咁,
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang 果樣,
    Xinyi
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan 該樣
    Pingxiang , 箇史
    Hakka Meixian
    Xingning ,
    Huidong (Daling) ,
    Qujiang
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
    Luchuan
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping
    Liancheng
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Senai
    Huizhou Jixi 爾的
    Jin Taiyuan 這來
    Xinzhou 這啦, 這麼, 這來
    Min Dong Fuzhou 只滿,
    Min Nan Xiamen , 遮爾, 遮爾仔
    Quanzhou , 拙幹
    Zhangzhou 遮爾, 遮爾仔
    Taipei , 遮爾, 遮爾仔
    Chaozhou , 照生
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou ,
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai 搿能, 搿能介, 搿個能, , 實能 dated, 實個能 dated
    Suzhou 該實梗, 該尚, 哀實梗, 哀尚, 實梗,
    Hangzhou 價套, , 實價套, 實價
    Wenzhou 該恁,
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua , 格生, 格亨,
    Tangxi 絞麼
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha 咯樣
    Quanzhou 這麼

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms

    Allegedly a contraction of 汝儂汝侬 (lí-nâng, “you people”). See (“person; pronoun suffix”) for more.

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. (Min Nan) you (plural)
      食飽未 / 食饱未 [Min Nan]  ―  Lín chia̍h-pá--bōe? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Have y'all eaten?
    2. (Min Nan) your (singular or plural)
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 你們 (“you (plural)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 爾等, 汝輩, 爾曹, 汝曹, 若屬
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 你們
    Mandarin Beijing 你們
    Taiwan 你們
    Tianjin 你們
    Harbin 你們
    Shenyang 你們
    Hailar 你們
    Ulanhot 你們
    Tongliao 你們
    Chifeng 你們
    Bayanhot 你們
    Jinan 你們, 你這伙
    Muping
    Luoyang 你們, 你家們
    Wanrong 你底,
    Xi'an 你的, , 你們
    Qingdao
    Zhengzhou
    Xining 你們
    Xuzhou , 你們
    Yinchuan 你們
    Lanzhou 你們
    Ürümqi 你們
    Wuhan 你們, 你家們
    Huanggang 你家兒
    Chengdu 你們
    Guiyang 你們
    Guilin 你們
    Liuzhou 你們
    Kunming 你們
    Yangzhou 你們
    Nanjing 你們
    Hefei 你們
    Nantong 你恁
    Malaysia 你們
    Singapore 你們
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 你們
    Cantonese Guangzhou 你哋
    Hong Kong 你哋
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 你人, 你哋
    Foshan 你哋
    Shunde 你哋
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 你哋
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 你哋
    Doumen
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Dongguan 你哋
    Shaoguan 你哋
    Yunfu 你哋
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi 你哋
    Lianjiang 你哋
    Nanning 你哋
    Wuzhou 你哋
    Yulin 你人
    Hepu 你嘅
    Kuala Lumpur 你哋
    Ho Chi Minh City 你哋
    Gan Nanchang 你們, 你個裡
    Lichuan 汝多
    Pingxiang 你俚, 恨俚
    Hakka Meixian 你等人, 你兜人
    Xingning 你兜人
    Huidong (Daling) 若兜人
    Qujiang 你俚
    Luchuan 你們
    Changting 你儕們
    Pingyu 你兜, 你等人
    Wuping 你等人
    Liancheng 你塔沙
    Ninghua 你等人
    Yudu 你底, 你支人
    Ruijin 你班人, 你班
    Shicheng 你當人, 你當
    Shangyou 你支人, 你等
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 你兜, 你兜人, 你兜儕, 你這兜
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 你等, 你等人, 你等儕, 你這兜, 你等這兜
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 你兜, 你兜人, 你兜儕, 你這兜
    Dongshi (Dabu) 若等, 若這兜, 若這兜人
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 你兜, 你兜人, 你兜儕, 你這兜
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 你人, 你這兜
    Hong Kong 若兜
    Sabah (Longchuan) 若兜, 你兜
    Senai 若兜
    Singkawang 你兜儕
    Huizhou Jixi 爾人
    Shexian 爾人
    Tunxi 爾人
    Xiuning 爾人
    Yixian 爾儂
    Qimen 爾大家
    Wuyuan 爾骯
    Dexing 爾們
    Jingde 爾伲
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 你些人
    Jin Taiyuan 你們
    Pingyao , 年們家, 年們
    Xinzhou 𪡇們, 𪡇
    Baochang 你們
    Jining 你們
    Hohhot 你們
    Baotou 你們
    Dongsheng 你們
    Linhe 你們
    Haibowan 你們
    Min Bei Jian'ou 你伙人, 你人
    Dikou 你人
    Songxi 你叢人
    Zhenghe 你人
    Zhenqian 汝人
    Jianyang 你伙人
    Wuyishan 你伙人
    Shibei 你人, 你多人
    Min Dong Fuzhou 汝各儂, 汝儂
    Fuqing 汝各儂
    Yongtai 汝各儂
    Gutian 汝各儂
    Fu'an 汝儕
    Ningde 汝各儂
    Shouning 汝儕家儂
    Zhouning 汝儕
    Fuding 汝儂
    Matsu 汝各儂
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Tong'an
    Quanzhou
    Jinjiang
    Nan'an
    Hui'an
    Anxi
    Yongchun
    Dehua
    Zhangzhou
    Longhai
    Changtai
    Hua'an
    Nanjing
    Pinghe
    Zhangpu
    Yunxiao
    Zhao'an
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi
    Hsinchu
    Taitung 恁逐家
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang 汝儂
    Singapore 汝儂
    Longyan 汝儂
    Zhangping 汝儂
    Zhangping (Yongfu) 汝儂
    Datian 汝伙
    Pingnan 恁儂
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng , 恁儂
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang 汝儂
    Haikou 汝儂
    Leizhou 汝儂
    Puxian Min Putian 汝輩
    Xianyou
    Pinghua Nanning 你哋
    Guilin 你哋
    Shehua Fu'an 你人
    Fuding 你人
    Luoyuan 你人
    Sanming 你仔
    Cangnan 你人
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou 你篤
    Wuxi 你哩
    Hangzhou 你們
    Wenzhou 你倈
    Chongming 你𭉪, 你勒
    Danyang 你己
    Jinhua , 儂浪, 爾浪
    Tangxi 爾道
    Ningbo 爾㑚, 㑚拉,
    Xiang Changsha 你們, 你屋裡
    Shuangfeng 你哩
    Xiangtan 你人
    Loudi 你㑲
    Quanzhou 你們,

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“(Mandarin, polite form) you”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cook thoroughly”).
    (This character, , is recorded in one or more historical dictionaries as an ancient form of .)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“(Cantonese) to think; to consider”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (im) (hangeul , revised im, McCune–Reischauer im, Yale im)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nhắm, nhẩm, nhậm, nhẫm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]