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See also:
U+679C, 果
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-679C

[U+679B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+679D]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 田木 (WD), four-corner 60904, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 516, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14556
  • Dae Jaweon: page 904, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1168, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+679C

Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – fruit on a tree.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: gu2 - rare.
Note:
  • guōi - vernacular;
  • guō - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kér/ké/kóe - vernacular;
    • kó͘/kó - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: guê2 / guên2 / guain2 / guan2
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: kué / kuéⁿ / kuáiⁿ / kuáⁿ
      • Sinological IPA (key): /kue⁵²/, /kũẽ⁵²/, /kũãĩ⁵²/, /kũã⁵²/
    Note:
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guǒ
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwo2
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guǒ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwaX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˁo[r]ʔ/
    English fruit; result

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4767
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːlʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. fruit
        ―  shuǐguǒ  ―  fruit
      /   ―  píngguǒ  ―  apple
    2. result
      /   ―  jiéguǒ  ―  result
      /   ―  hòuguǒ  ―  consequence
    3. sure enough
        ―  guǒrán  ―  as expected
        ―  guǒzhēn  ―  really
    4. determined
        ―  guǒgǎn  ―  resolute and courageous
    5. to fill
        ―  guǒ  ―  to fill one's stomach
    6. to come true
        ―  guǒ  ―  to be unsuccessful
    7. finally; at last
    8. actually
      Synonyms: 究竟 (jiūjìng), 終究终究 (zhōngjiū)
    9. if
    10. A surname.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to wrap; to bind; to encircle; confine; to carry off; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (kuɑX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Counter[edit]

    () (-kaくわ (kwa)?

    1. pieces of fruit

    Noun[edit]

    () (kaくわ (kwa)?

    1. fruit
    2. (Buddhism) phala, attained state, result
    3. (Buddhism) enlightenment (as the fruits of one's Buddhist practice)

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 열매 (yeolmae gwa))

    1. Hanja form? of (fruit).
    2. Hanja form? of (result).

    Old Korean[edit]

    Particle[edit]

    (*-kwa)

    1. and; with (comitative case marker; attached to multiple connected nouns)
      • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra:
        灌頂三品士
        *TUNG-kwa HYEY-kwa KWANTYENG-kwa-s SAMPHWUMSO-n
        As for the three gentlemen of Dengguan and Huiguang and Guanding
        (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)

    Usage notes[edit]

    果 follows the grammatical rules of its Middle Korean descendant, which differ from Modern Korean usage. Thus it may be followed by other case markers, such as . Furthermore, in both Old and Middle Korean, "A and B" is expressed as A-kwa B-kwa, instead of Modern Korean A-kwa B.

    Unlike in Middle and Modern Korean, 果 did not take any allomorph following a vowel. The Middle Korean allomorph (Yale: -Gwa) was produced by the lenition of Old Korean *k to /ɣ/ between vowels.

    Descendants[edit]

    • Middle Korean: (-kwa)
      • Korean: (-kwa)
    • Middle Korean: (-Gwa) (allomorph following a vowel, produced by intervocalic lenition of *-k)
      • Korean: (-wa)

    See also[edit]

    • (*-li, intimate connective particle)

    References[edit]

    • 이승재 (Lee Seung-jae), “Chaja pyogi jaryo-ui gyeokjosa yeon'gu [Study of case markers in the Chinese-based orthography [of Korean]]”, in Gugeo Gukmunhak, volume 127, 2000, pages 107–132

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: quả, hủ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.