Note that the right side component of this character (U+53F1) is written 𠤎 and not 匕. In Japan, as of the latest 2010 reform the correct form of the character is 𠮟 (U+20B9F) with 七 as the right side component.
- KangXi: page 173, character 2
- Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3248
- Dae Jaweon: page 384, character 2
- Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 572, character 6
- Unihan data for U+53F1
|simp. and trad.
|Historical forms of the character 叱|
|Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)|
|Small seal script|
Not included in the 2010 jōyō reform in favor of very similar 𠮟 (
U+20B9F), despite 叱 having been standard in Japanese character sets.
Conventionally reconstructed as *-s, after the Middle Korean reflexes.
Generally thought to be from an otherwise unattested Old Chinese dialectal pronunciation of the character that began with *s-.
Minority views include that it is a graphic simplification of a different Chinese character, or that it is a gukja invented in Korea with 𠤎 representing the shape of the tongue while pronouncing /s/ and 口 being a radical that denotes a non-standard character.
- A consonantal phonogram denoting coda consonant *-s
- 之 (logographic form, in Idu texts)
- Genitive case marker, chiefly for inanimate nouns
In Middle Korean, the genitive case marker ㅅ (Yale: -s) was used for both inanimate nouns and honored animate nouns, while the other genitive marker 의 (Yale: -uy) was reserved for non-honored animate nouns.
In the limited Old Korean corpus, 叱 appears to be used chiefly for inanimate nouns. Meanwhile, many texts use the genitive 尸 *-lq, with no evident Middle Korean reflex, for honored nouns such as the Buddha. There is a strong argument that 尸 is an allomorphic variant of 叱, representing a phenomenon ancestral to the tensing of the subsequent obstruent that occurred in Middle Korean when ㅅ occurred between a sonorant and an obstruent. If true, there was no distinction between Old and Middle Korean in the use of the genitive -s.
Unlike the other Old Korean genitive marker 衣 (*-uy), 叱 could follow other case markers.
- Middle Korean: ㅅ (s, genitive case marker for inanimate or honored animate nouns)
- Korean: ㅅ (s, interfix)
- 衣 (*-uy) (genitive case marker, often for animate nouns)
- 尸 (*-lq) (genitive case marker, chiefly for honored animate nouns; possibly an allomorph of 叱)
- 조은주 (Jo Eun-ju) (2002) , “Seokdok gugyeol jaryo-e natanan sokgyeok josa-e daehayeo [On the genitive case markers in interpretive gugyeol texts]”, in Gungmunhak Nonjip, volume 18, pages 61–90
- 장윤희 (Jang Yun-hui) (2011) , “Seokdok gugyeol 'si'-ui munje haegyeor-eul wihayeo [For a solution to the problem of genitive 尸 in interpretive gugyeol]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 27, pages 117–144
- Nam Pung-hyun (2012) , “Old Korean”, in The Languages of Japan and Korea, Routledge, →ISBN, pages 41–72
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