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See also: 𠮟 [U+20B9F CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-20B9F]
U+53F1, 叱
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53F1

[U+53F0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53F2]
叱 U+2F83A, 叱
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F83A
叫
[U+2F839]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 吆
[U+2F83B]

Translingual[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that the right side component of this character (U+53F1) is written 𠤎 and not . In Japan, as of the latest 2010 reform the correct form of the character is 𠮟 (U+20B9F) with as the right side component.

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 口心 (RP), four-corner 64010, composition𠤎)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 173, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3248
  • Dae Jaweon: page 384, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 572, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+53F1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
叱-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *n̥ʰjid): semantic (mouth) + phonetic (OC *sn̥ʰid).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (24)
Final () (48)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕʰiɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕʰit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕʰjet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cʰit̚/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕʰiĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕʰĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cat1
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9912
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ʰjid/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to scold; to shout at; to bawl out

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. scold
  2. shout
  3. reprove

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Interjection[edit]

(しっ) (shi'

  1. shh
  2. shoo

Usage notes[edit]

Not included in the 2010 jōyō reform in favor of very similar 𠮟 (U+20B9F), despite 叱 having been standard in Japanese character sets.


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 꾸짖을 (kkujijeul jil))

  1. Hanja form? of (scold).

Compounds[edit]


Old Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conventionally reconstructed as *-s, after the Middle Korean reflexes.

Etymology 1[edit]

Generally thought to be from an otherwise unattested Old Chinese dialectal pronunciation of the character that began with *s-.

Minority views include that it is a graphic simplification of a different Chinese character, or that it is a gukja invented in Korea with 𠤎 representing the shape of the tongue while pronouncing /s/ and being a radical that denotes a non-standard character.

Phonogram[edit]

(*-s)

  1. A consonantal phonogram denoting coda consonant *-s

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (logographic form, in Idu texts)

Particle[edit]

(*-s)

  1. Genitive case marker, chiefly for inanimate nouns
Usage notes[edit]

In Middle Korean, the genitive case marker (Yale: -s) was used for both inanimate nouns and honored animate nouns, while the other genitive marker (Yale: -uy) was reserved for non-honored animate nouns.

In the limited Old Korean corpus, 叱 appears to be used chiefly for inanimate nouns. Meanwhile, many texts use the genitive *-lq, with no evident Middle Korean reflex, for honored nouns such as the Buddha. There is a strong argument that 尸 is an allomorphic variant of 叱, representing a phenomenon ancestral to the tensing of the subsequent obstruent that occurred in Middle Korean when ㅅ occurred between a sonorant and an obstruent. If true, there was no distinction between Old and Middle Korean in the use of the genitive -s.

Unlike the other Old Korean genitive marker (*-uy), 叱 could follow other case markers.

Descendants[edit]
  • Middle Korean: (s, genitive case marker for inanimate or honored animate nouns)
    • Korean: (s, interfix)

Synonyms[edit]

  • (*-uy) (genitive case marker, often for animate nouns)
  • (*-lq) (genitive case marker, chiefly for honored animate nouns; possibly an allomorph of 叱)

References[edit]

  • 조은주 (Jo Eun-ju) (2002) , “Seokdok gugyeol jaryo-e natanan sokgyeok josa-e daehayeo [On the genitive case markers in interpretive gugyeol texts]”, in Gungmunhak Nonjip, volume 18, pages 61–90
  • 장윤희 (Jang Yun-hui) (2011) , “Seokdok gugyeol 'si'-ui munje haegyeor-eul wihayeo [For a solution to the problem of genitive 尸 in interpretive gugyeol]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 27, pages 117–144
  • Nam Pung-hyun (2012) , “Old Korean”, in The Languages of Japan and Korea, Routledge, →ISBN, pages 41–72

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: sất, sứt, sớt

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