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See also: and
U+53F2, 史
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53F2

[U+53F1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53F3]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 30, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中大 (LK), four-corner 50006, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 173, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3249
  • Dae Jaweon: page 384, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 571, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+53F2

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
史-oracle.svg 史-bronze.svg 史-seal.svg 史-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – (OC *ɢʷɯs, “hand”) holding a fountain pen resembling (OC *tuŋ, *tuŋs)

Etymology[edit]

"to send, to employ, to cause"
Causative derivation of (OC rəʔ) "envoy (Zuo)" , "jail-official" (Guanzi), "marriage go-between", which is perhaps the same word as (OC rəʔ) "to administer" (Schuessler 2007); the sense "scribe, historian" is derived from this.
"scribe, historian"
Possibly from Austroasiatic; Schuessler (2007) compared (), (, “official”), (shǐ, “scribe, historian”), and 使 (shǐ, “ambassador”) to Old Khmer re (to move, change position) & its derivatives Old Khmer pre (to send, order, assign, appoint, delegate, use, employ, make), in turn related to paṃre (to serve; service, duty; servant, delegate, representative, minister); with Sino-Tibetan causative *s- corresponding to Khmer causative *p-.
Alternatively, Unger (1990) and Starostin & Peiros (1996) derived (OC *srɯʔ) "scribe, secretary" from (OC *rɯʔ) "to mark, to draw lines", which, while cognate with Tibetan འབྲི ('bri, to write, to draw), apparently never meant "to write, to record".

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sír/sú/sí - literary;
  • sái - vernacular.
Note: su2 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (21)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃɨX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃɨX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃieX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂɨX/
Li
Rong
/ʃiəX/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭəX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shǐ
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shǐ
Middle
Chinese
‹ sriX ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-rəʔ/
English scribe

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11487
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srɯʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. history
  2. (historical or archaic) historian
  3. (historical) scribe
  4. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. record, recording
  2. history

Readings[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(ひろし) (Hiroshi

  1. A male given name

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (sa))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: sử

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.