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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
中-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 2 +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 中 (L), four-corner 50006, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 79, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 73
  • Dae Jaweon: page 158, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 28, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E2D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠁦
𠁧
𠁩
𠔈
𠔗

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
中-oracle.svg 中-bronze.svg 中-silk.svg 中-bigseal.svg 中-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – a vertical stroke passing throught the center of , indicating the center. Originally a pictograph of a string heddle: (OC *ʔsuːŋs). It is also interpreted as a flagpole piercing the middle of a frame or an arrow in the center of a target.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t/duŋ. Cognate with Tibetan གཞུང ‎(gzhung, middle, center).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡suŋ²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /p͡fəŋ²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /p͡fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂoŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂoŋ³¹/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡suəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡suŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡soŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡soŋ³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡san¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ʈ͡ʂən³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡suŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /tuŋ⁴⁴/ ~心
/t͡suŋ⁴⁴/ ~間
Taoyuan /tuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡soŋ⁵³/
Nanning /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tœyŋ⁵⁴/
/tœyŋ³³/ ~奬
Shantou (Min Nan) /toŋ³³/
/taŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /toŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (9)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈuwŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȶiuŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*truŋ/
English center

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 17407
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tuŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. middle; center
  2. medium; intermediary
  3. within; among; in
  4. while; in the process of; during; in the middle of
  5. (dialectal) all right; OK
  6. Short for 中國中国 (Zhōngguó, “China; Chinese”).
    • 關係 / 关系  ―  Zhōng Měi guānxì  ―  China–United States relation
  7. Short for 中學中学 (zhōngxué, “middle school”). Used only in the abbreviation of the name.
      ―  Sān Zhōng  ―  No.3 Middle School
  8. A surname​. Zhong

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (9)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈuwŋH/
Li
Rong
/ȶiuŋH/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯uŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhòng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*truŋ-s/
English hit the center

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 17410
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tuŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to hit the mark; to be correct; to be successful
  2. to be hit by; to suffer; to be affected by
  3. to win (a prize, a lottery)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
なか
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なか, romaji naka)

  1. inside
  2. middle
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なか, romaji Naka)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
なか
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ちゅう, romaji chū)

  1. middle, medium
    large, medium and small
  2. average; neither good nor poor
    の出来映え
    an average performance
  3. during; being in the process of doing
  4. second volume of a three volume set

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
うち
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うち, romaji uchi)

(うち, uchi)
(うち, uchi)
内 is the most common kanji for this pronunciation.
  1. inside

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ちゅう, romaji Chū)

  1. short form for China or Chinese, Sino- (prefix)
    日中関係 (にっちゅうかんけい)
    Nitchū kankei
    Sino-Japanese relations

‎(hiragana あたり, romaji Atari)

  1. A surname​.

‎(hiragana あたる, romaji Ataru)

  1. A female given name

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana じゅう, romaji -jū)

  1. during, in the course of, throughout
    世界 (せかい) (じゅう)
    sekai
    throughout the world
     (からだ) (じゅう)
    karada
    throughout the body
  2. all over, everywhere

‎(hiragana ちゅう, romaji -chū)

  1. being in the process of doing
    ダウンロード (ちゅう)
    daunrōdo-chū
    downloading; download in progress
    メンテ (ちゅう)
    mente-chū
    currently in maintenance

The distinction between じゅう ‎() and ちゅう ‎(chū) can be somewhat confusing: じゅう ‎() means throughout, in all places, as in 一日中 ‎(ichinichijū, all day long) or 体中 ‎(karadajū, throughout the body), while ちゅう ‎(chū) means within, but not everywhere, as in 授業中 ‎(jugyōchū, in class, during class). Contrast “I worked on this all day long” with “I worked on this in class (but not necessarily for the entire time)”.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: chung, Yale: cwung)
  • Name (hangeul): 가운데 (revised: gaunde, McCune-Reischauer: kaunde, Yale: kawuntey)
  1. the middle, the center, the heart, the midst

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(jung) ‎(hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “the middle, medium, during”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(trung, trong, truông, đúng, trúng, truồng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]