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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
中-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
中-oracle.svg 中-bronze.svg 中-silk.svg 中-bigseal.svg 中-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) a vertical stroke passing throught the center of , indicating the center. Originally a pictograph of a string heddle (). It is also interpreted as a flagpole piercing the middle of a frame or an arrow in the center of a target.

Han character[edit]

(radical 2 +3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 中 (L), four-corner 50006, composition)

  1. center, middle
  2. central
  3. in the midst of, during (a period of time)
  4. moderate
  5. neutral
  6. (abbreviation) China, Chinese
  7. hit (target)
  8. attain

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 79, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 73
  • Dae Jaweon: page 158, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 28, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E2D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t/duŋ. Cognate with Old Tibetan གཞུང ‎(gzhung, middle, center).[1]

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡suŋ²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /p͡fəŋ²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /p͡fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂoŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂoŋ³¹/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡suəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡suŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡soŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡soŋ³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡san¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ʈ͡ʂən³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡suŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /tuŋ⁴⁴/ ~心
/t͡suŋ⁴⁴/ ~间
Taoyuan /tuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡soŋ⁵³/
Nanning /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tœyŋ⁵⁴/
/tœyŋ³³/ ~奖
Shantou (Min Nan) /toŋ³³/
/taŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /toŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (9)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʈɨuŋ/ /ȶi̯uŋ/ /ȶiuŋ/ /ʈiuŋ/ /ʈuwŋ/ /ȶĭuŋ/ /ȶiuŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (9)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʈɨuŋH/ /ȶi̯uŋH/ /ȶiuŋH/ /ʈiuŋH/ /ʈuwŋH/ /ȶĭuŋH/ /ȶiuŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zhōng ‹ trjuwng › /*truŋ/ center
zhòng ‹ trjuwngH › /*truŋ-s/ hit the center

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
17407 0 /*tuŋ/
17410 0 /*tuŋs/

Noun[edit]

  1. middle, center

Adjective[edit]

  1. medium, intermediary
    夾克尺碼 [MSC, trad.]
    夹克尺码 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiàn jiākè yǒu sān ge chǐmǎ: xiǎo, zhōng, dà. [Pinyin]
    You can get the jacket in three sizes - small, medium and large.
  2. (dialectal) all right, OK

Preposition[edit]

  1. within, among, in
    受傷15女孩 [MSC, trad.]
    受伤15女孩 [MSC, simp.]
    Shòushāng zhě zhōng yǒu yī wèi 15 suì de nǚhái. [Pinyin]
    A 15-year-old girl was among the injured.
  2. while, in the process of, during, in the middle of
    事故受傷 [MSC, trad.]
    事故受伤 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā zài shìgù zhōng shòushāng. [Pinyin]
    He was injured in the accident.
    出生暴風雨 [MSC, trad.]
    出生暴风雨 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā chūshēng zài yī chǎng bàofēngyǔ zhōng. [Pinyin]
    She was born in the middle of a rain storm.

Proper noun[edit]

  1. China, Chinese
    關係 / 关系  ―  Zhōng Měi guānxì  ―  China–United States relation
  2. A surname​. Zhong

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡suŋ²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʈ͡ʂəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /p͡fəŋ²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /p͡fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂoŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂoŋ³¹/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡suəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡suŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡soŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡soŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡soŋ³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡san¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ʈ͡ʂən³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡suŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /tuŋ⁴⁴/ ~心
/t͡suŋ⁴⁴/ ~间
Taoyuan /tuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡soŋ⁵³/
Nanning /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡suŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tœyŋ⁵⁴/
/tœyŋ³³/ ~奖
Shantou (Min Nan) /toŋ³³/
/taŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /toŋ²³/

Verb[edit]

  1. to hit the mark, to be correct, to be successful
  2. to be hit by, to suffer, to be affected by
    一次伏擊警察身亡 [MSC, trad.]
    一次伏击警察身亡 [MSC, simp.]
    Yīcì fújī zhōng yī míng jǐngchá zhòng dàn shēnwáng. [Pinyin]
    A policeman has been shot dead in an ambush.
    試圖肩膀 [MSC, trad.]
    试图肩膀 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shìtú pá zǒu shí jiānbǎng zhòngqiāng le. [Pinyin]
    As he tried to crawl away, he was hit in the shoulder.
  3. to win (a prize, a lottery)

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana なか, romaji naka)

  1. inside
  2. middle

‎(hiragana ちゅう, romaji chū)

  1. middle, medium
    large, medium and small
  2. average; neither good nor poor
    の出来映え
    an average performance
  3. during; being in the process of doing
  4. second volume of a three volume set

‎(hiragana うち, romaji uchi)

(うち, uchi)
(うち, uchi)
内 is the most common kanji for this pronunciation.
  1. inside

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ちゅう, romaji Chū)

  1. short form for China or Chinese, Sino- (prefix)
    日中関係 (にっちゅうかんけい)
    Nitchū kankei
    Sino-Japanese relations

‎(hiragana あたり, romaji Atari)

  1. A surname​.

‎(hiragana なか, romaji Naka)

  1. A surname​.

‎(hiragana あたる, romaji Ataru)

  1. A female given name

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana じゅう, romaji -jū)

  1. during, in the course of, throughout
    世界 (せかい) (じゅう)
    sekai
    throughout the world
     (からだ) (じゅう)
    karada
    throughout the body
  2. all over, everywhere

‎(hiragana ちゅう, romaji -chū)

  1. being in the process of doing
    ダウンロード (ちゅう)
    daunrōdo-chū
    downloading; download in progress
    メンテ (ちゅう)
    mente-chū
    currently in maintenance

Usage notes[edit]

The distinction between じゅう () and ちゅう (chū) can be somewhat confusing: じゅう means throughout, in all places, as in 一日中 (ichinichijū, “all day long”) or 体中 (karadajū, “throughout the body”), while ちゅう means within, but not everywhere, as in 授業中 (jugyōchū, “in class, during class”). Contrast “I worked on this all day long” with “I worked on this in class (but not necessarily for the entire time)”.


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jung)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: jung, McCune-Reischauer: chung, Yale: cwung)
  • Name (hangeul): 가운데 (revised: gaunde, McCune-Reischauer: kaunde, Yale: kawuntey)
  1. the middle, the center, the heart, the midst

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(jung) ‎(hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “the middle, medium, during”.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(trung, trong, truông, đúng, trúng, truồng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]

  • ^ 《汉藏语同源词综探》,全广镇