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See also: , , , and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
大-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 37 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 大 (K), four-corner 40030/40800, composition)

Derived characters[edit]
Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 248, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5831
  • Dae Jaweon: page 492, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 520, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5927

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
大-oracle.svg 大-bronze.svg 大-silk.svg 大-bigseal.svg 大-seal.svg

Ideogram (指事): a person with arms stretched out as far as possible, implying the meaning of big/great/large. This is in contrast to which represents a person with lowered arms implying small in size.

Compare with , which is a man with bent legs with the meaning of weak.

Compare also , which is a man with arms outstretched and a crest or tattoo on his chest denoting culture or language, and to , which is a man with arms outstretched and leaning to side (running), denoting youth.

Etymology[edit]

Three pronunciations can be found in Modern Standard Chinese:

  1. Modern , from Middle Chinese L, from Old Chinese *lˤaːts. The phonological development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese is irregular. Original sense: "big" (Shijing). Derived senses: "size" (Mozi), "thick" (Zhuangzi), "to respect" (Mengzi), "to respect" (Xunzi), "to extol" (Gongyang Zhuan), "to exaggerate" (Classic of Rites), "arrogant" (Guoyu), "good" (I Ching), "(of time) long" (Erya), "senior" (Shijing).
  2. Modern dài, from Middle Chinese dɑiL, from Old Chinese *lˤaːts. This Middle Chinese pronunciation-preserving (i.e. literary) pronunciation occurs only in compounds such as 大夫 (dàifu, “doctor”) and 大王 (dàiwang, “(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader”).
  3. Modern tài, from Middle Chinese tʰɑiL, from Old Chinese *l̥ˤaːts. This is the ancient form of (tài, “too, excessively”) and is obsolete in modern languages.

Pronunciation 2), the diphthong reading, is traditionally regarded as the correct one. However, the monophthong reading 1) has been recorded as early as Han Dynasty, and Sui-Tang rhyme books record both. Both readings are reflected in Sino-xenic readings in non-Sinitic languages, although the diphthong readings dominate in compounds. Axel Schüssler postulates that all pronunciations can eventually be traced back to liquid initials, i.e. 1,2) **laːts, 3) **hlaːts.

The three pronunciations are cognate. Within Chinese, they are cognate with (tài, OC *tʰaːds, "too, excessively"), (tài, OC *tʰaːds, "big", note that this character also means "to reach", perhaps unrelated), (dàn, OC *l̥aːnʔ, "big, magniloquent, ridiculous"). There are no unambiguous Tibeto-Burman cognates. Proto-Tibeto-Burman *taj ‎(big), from which came Written Tibetan མཐེ་བོ ‎(mthe bo, thumb), Nung tʰɛ ("big, large, great"), Mikir tʰè, ketʰè ("id."), Written Burmese တယ် ‎(tai, very), is often compared with. There is no final -s in the Tibeto-Burman words, but a -y, which, according to James Matisoff, "indicates emergent quality in stative verbs". Also compare Chinese (duō, OC *ʔl̥aːl, "many, much"), (dū > dōu, OC *taː, "all").

Pronunciation 1[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 大 (小)
Mandarin Beijing /ta⁵¹/
Harbin /ta⁵³/
Tianjin /tɑ⁵³/
Jinan /ta²¹/
Qingdao /ta²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ta³¹²/
Xi'an /ta⁴⁴/
Xining /ta²¹³/
Yinchuan /ta¹³/
Lanzhou /ta¹³/
Ürümqi /ta²¹³/
Wuhan /ta³⁵/
Chengdu /ta¹³/
Guiyang /ta²¹³/
Kunming /ta̠²¹²/
Nanjing /tɑ⁴⁴/
Hefei /ta⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ta⁴⁵/
Pingyao /tei³⁵/
/tɑ³⁵/
Hohhot /ta⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /da²³/
/du²³/
Suzhou /dəu³¹/
Hangzhou /dɑ¹³/
/do¹³/
Wenzhou /da²²/
/dɤu²²/
Hui Shexian /tʰa²²/
/tʰo²²/
Tunxi /tʰo¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ta⁵⁵/
/tai¹¹/
Xiangtan /dai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /tʰo²¹/ ~娘,姑母
Hakka Meixian /tʰai⁵³/
Taoyuan /tʰɑi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /tai²²/
Nanning /tai²²/
Hong Kong /tai²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /to²²/
/tua²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tuɑi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tuɛ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /tai³⁵/
/tua³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔda³⁵/
/ʔdua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (7) (7)
Final () (25) (94)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dajH/ /daH/
Li
Rong
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Wang
Li
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑiH/ /dʱɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dài duò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ daH › ‹ dajH ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˤat-s/ (MC F!) /*lˤa[t]-s/
English big big

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 1934 1939
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daːds/ /*daːds/

Definitions[edit]

  1. big, large, huge
    Antonyms: (xiǎo)
  2. big, great, deep
  3. main, major
  4. loud, heavy
    • 昨天  ―  Zuótiān xià yǔ.  ―  There was heavy rain yesterday.
  5. mature; grown up
    •   ―  Nǐ duō le?  ―  How old are you?
    •   ―  Tā bǐ tā .  ―  She is older than him.
  6. greatly, very much
  7. (dialectal) father
  8. (dialectal) father's elder or younger brother
  9. Short for 大學大学 (dàxué, “university”). Used only in the abbreviation of the name.
      ―  Běi   ―  Peking University

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 大夫 (dàifu, “doctor”).
  2. Only used in 大城 (“Daicheng, Hebei”).
  3. Only used in 大王 (dàwáng, “(in operas, old novels) king; ringleader”).

Pronunciation 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
だい
Grade: 1
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana だい, romaji dai-)

  1. big, large
  2. the large part of
  3. university
Usage notes[edit]

This is often the first half two-character shorthand name of universities, for example 東大 ‎(Tokyo University, Tōdai)

Etymology 2[edit]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana おお, romaji ō-, historical hiragana おほ)

  1. big

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(dae, tae)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul): ,  (revised: dae, tae, McCune-Reischauer: tae, t'ae, Yale: tay, thay)
  • Name (hangeul): 크다 (revised: keuda, McCune-Reischauer: k'ŭda, Yale: khuta)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Mulam[edit]

Adjective[edit]

‎(lo4)

  1. big

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đại)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]