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See also:
U+8001, 老
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8001
耀
[U+8000]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8002]
U+F934, 老
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F934

[U+F933]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F935]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
老-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 125, +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 十大心 (JKP), four-corner 44711, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #125, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 960, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28842
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1407, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2778, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8001

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
老-oracle.svg 老-bronze.svg 老-silk.svg 老-seal.svg 老-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ruːʔ
*ruːʔ, *maːʔ
*ruːʔ
*ruːʔ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (man) +  (hair) +  (cane) – a man with long hair (an old man), leaning on a cane. Compare top component to (OC *qʰruːs).

Cognate to (OC *kʰluːʔ); the most commonly cited example of 轉注 (“reciprocal meaning”).

Etymology[edit]

Unknown. Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-raw (withered, residue, corpse), *rwat (stiff, tough), whence Burmese ရော် (rau, wither, become overripe; age), ရွတ် (rwat, old, stiff, tough). See also (), ().

An old Sino-Vietnamese borrowing is rệu (overripe, pulpy).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sē, la̿u, lo̤̿ - vernacular;
  • lǎu - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • lâu - vernacular;
    • lō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lāu/lǎu - vernacular;
    • láu - vernacular (sometimes considered literary);
    • làu - vernacular (limited, e.g. 老闆);
    • lǎ - vernacular (limited, e.g. 老鶚);
    • ló/ló͘/nó͘ - literary.
    Note:
    • lao6 - vernacular;
    • lao2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.rˤuʔ/
    English old

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7666
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ruːʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. old, aged, elderly (for persons, animate and inanimate objects generally)
    2. the elderly, one's elders
    3. experienced
    4. to respect (the elderly, one's elders)
    5. overcooked, tough, stringy, hard (used in reference to cooked food or meat)
    6. stale, not fresh (used in reference to food or potable liquids)
    7. always, all the time
    8. (chiefly dialectal) very, quite
      (hěn)
    9. (affectionate, respectful) Used before surnames to refer to heads or elder members of families.
      (xiǎo) (for younger people)
    10. (usually respectful and affectionate) Used by analogy in several other relationship terms.
      • /   ―  lǎoshī  ―  teacher
      •   ―  lǎo  ―  wifey
      •   ―  lǎogōng  ―  hubby
    11. (zoology) Used before several animals considered noxious or unpleasant.
      •   ―  lǎo  ―  tiger
      •   ―  lǎoshǔ  ―  mouse
    12. (colloquial) Used before placenames, particularly countries, to form nouns.
      •   ―  lǎowài  ―  (pejorative) foreigner, furriner, whitey
      •   ―  lǎoměi  ―  (pejorative) American person, Yank
      • 毛子  ―  lǎomáozi  ―  (pejorative) Russian person
    13. (Mainland China, Hong Kong) Short for 老撾老挝 (Lǎowō, “Laos”).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. old age, an elderly person, the aged, the elderly

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ro>no) (hangeul >)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (lão, láu, lảo, lảu, rảu, lẩu, lẽo, lếu)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.