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U+5B54, 孔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B54

[U+5B53]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B55]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 39, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓木山 (NDU), four-corner 12410, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 277, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6933
  • Dae Jaweon: page 544, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1008, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5B54

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
孔-bronze.svg 孔-seal.svg 孔-bigseal.svg

Bronze inscriptions: Ideogrammic compound (會意): 丿 (opening) +  (child) – opening in the skull of a newborn, i.e. fontanelle.

Etymology[edit]

"hole"
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)uŋ (hole; orifice; inner part). (OC *kʰloːŋʔ, “hole”) is probably the endoactive derivation of (OC *kʰoːŋ, “hollow; empty”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan ཁུང (khung, hole), Jingpho ladi hku (lədî hkū, nostril), Chepang घाङ्‌ (gʰaŋ, hole), Burmese အခေါင် (a.hkaung, hollow place; cavity), Naxi kho³³ (cave; hole; pit) (STEDT).

"peacock": (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Compare Reconstruction:Proto-Vietic/k-voːŋ”)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kháng - vernacular;
  • khóng - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kǒng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kǒng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwngX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʰˁoŋʔ/
    English (surname)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7489
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰloːŋʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. hole; aperture; opening
    2. Classifier for cave dwellings, oil wells, etc.
    3. large
    4. fine
    5. very
    6. peacock
    7. A surname​.
    8. (specifically) Short for 孔子 (Kǒngzǐ, “Confucius”).

    Synonyms[edit]

    • (hole):
    • (Confucius):
    edit

    See also[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. cavity

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gong)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: gong, McCune–Reischauer: kong)
      • Name (hangeul): 구멍
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (khổng, hỏng, hổng, khỏng, khủng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.