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U+5B54, 孔
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B54

[U+5B53]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B55]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
4 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 39, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 弓木山 (NDU), four-corner 12410, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 277, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6933
  • Dae Jaweon: page 544, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1008, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5B54

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
孔-bronze.svg 孔-seal.svg 孔-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰloːʔ, *qʰloːs
*kʰloːŋʔ

Bronze inscriptions: Ideogrammic compound (會意): 丿 (opening) +  (child) – opening in the skull of a newborn, i.e. fontanelle.

Etymology[edit]

"hole":

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Related to (kōng)”

"peacock":

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Compare Reconstruction:Proto-Vietic/k-voːŋ

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kháng - vernacular;
  • khóng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kǒng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kǒng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwngX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʰˁoŋʔ/
    English (surname)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7489
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰloːŋʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. hole; aperture; opening
    2. Classifier for cave dwellings, oil wells, etc.
    3. large
    4. fine
    5. very
    6. peacock
    7. A surname​.
    8. (specifically) Short for 孔子 (Kǒngzǐ, “Confucius”).

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of (“hole”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 孔洞
    Mandarin Beijing 窟窿
    Jinan 窟窿
    Xi'an 窟窿子窟窿
    Wuhan 窟窿窟眼洞洞
    Chengdu 窟窿洞洞
    Yangzhou
    Hefei 窟窿
    Cantonese Guangzhou 窿咕窿
    Hong Kong 窿咕窿
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 窿仔窿空仔
    Jin Taiyuan 窟窿窟子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 空空
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Taipei
    Chaozhou
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou 窟窿
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng 眼貢

    See also[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. cavity

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gong)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: gong, McCune–Reischauer: kong)
      • Name (hangeul): 구멍
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (khổng, hỏng, hổng, khỏng, khủng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.