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U+5DDD, 川
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DDD

[U+5DDC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DDE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
川-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 47 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 中中中 (LLL), four-corner 22000)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 323, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 624, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 32, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5DDD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
川-oracle.svg 川-bronze.svg 川-silk.svg 川-seal.svg 川-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰjon
*kʰjons
*kʰuːn
*sɢljun
*sɢljun
*sɢljun, *ɢljun
*kljuns, *kʷeːnʔ
*ɢljuns
*qʰuns

Pictogram (象形) – compare (OC *qʰʷljilʔ).

Etymology[edit]

The Middle and Old Chinese reconstruction of this word is phonologically problematic (STEDT):

Schuessler (2007) relates this word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; valley), whence (OC *kroːŋ, “river”), (OC *kloːɡ, “valley”), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung, river), Burmese ချောင်း (hkyaung:, stream). STEDT notes that this does not account for the *-n coda.

STEDT instead compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-t(w)əj-n ~ *m-ti-s (water; fluid; liquid; river; soak; spit), whence (OC *tʰiːlʔ, “tears”), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuj (water; fluid; liquid), Chepang तीः (water; rain; river); this depends on a reconstruction with a dental initial and requires positing an *‑n suffix not present in Tibeto-Burman languages.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhoan - literary;
  • chhng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
Note:
  • cuang1/cuêng1 - literary;
  • ceng1 - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (24)
    Final () (78)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰiuᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰʷiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰjuæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰwian/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰiuɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰĭwɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰi̯wɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuān
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chuān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhwen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t.l̥u[n]/ (MC -jwen is irregular)
    English stream, river

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    穿
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰjon/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. river; stream; brook
    2. Synonym of (cuān, “to boil food for a short time in boiled water”).
    3. Short for 四川 (Sìchuān, “Sichuan Province, China”).
    4. source (of a river)
    5. road
    6. plain
    7. Alternative form of 穿 (chuān).
    8. A surname​.

    See also[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. river

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana かわ, rōmaji kawa, historical hiragana かは)

    1. river, stream, brook

    Synonyms[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana かわ, rōmaji -kawa, historical hiragana かは)

    1. the ... river, used in named of rivers or streams

    (hiragana がわ, rōmaji -gawa, historical hiragana がは)

    1. the ... river

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (cheon)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: cheon, McCune-Reischauer: ch'ŏn)
      • Name (hangeul):
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (xuyên, xiên)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.