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See also: and
U+5DDD, 川
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DDD

[U+5DDC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DDE]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
川-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 47 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 中中中 (LLL), four-corner 22000)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 323, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8673
  • Dae Jaweon: page 624, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 32, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5DDD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
川-oracle.svg 川-bronze.svg 川-silk.svg 川-seal.svg 川-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰjon
*kʰjons
*kʰuːn
*sɢljun
*sɢljun
*sɢljun, *ɢljun
*kljuns, *kʷeːnʔ
*ɢljuns
*qʰuns

Pictogram (象形) – compare (OC *qʰʷljilʔ).

Etymology[edit]

The Middle and Old Chinese reconstruction of this word is phonologically problematic (STEDT):

Schuessler (2007) relates this word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; valley), whence (OC *kroːŋ, “river”), (OC *kloːɡ, “valley”), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung, river), Burmese ချောင်း (hkyaung:, stream). STEDT notes that this does not account for the *-n coda.

STEDT instead compares it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-t(w)əj-n ~ *m-ti-s (water; fluid; liquid; river; soak; spit), whence (OC *tʰiːlʔ, “tears”), Proto-Kuki-Chin *tuj (water; fluid; liquid), Chepang तीः (water; rain; river); this depends on a reconstruction with a dental initial and requires positing an *‑n suffix not present in Tibeto-Burman languages.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhoan - literary;
  • chhng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular (only used in 尻川).
Note:
  • cuang1/cuêng1 - literary;
  • ceng1 - vernacular (only used in 尻川).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (24)
Final () (78)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕʰiuᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕʰʷiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕʰjuæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cʰwian/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕʰiuɛn/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕʰĭwɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰi̯wɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chuān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chuān
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyhwen ›
Old
Chinese
/*t.l̥u[n]/ (MC -jwen is irregular)
English stream, river

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1628
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
穿
Old
Chinese
/*kʰjon/

Definitions[edit]

  1. river; stream; brook
  2. Synonym of (cuān, “to boil food for a short time in boiled water”).
  3. Short for 四川 (Sìchuān, “Sichuan Province, China”).
  4. source (of a river)
  5. road
  6. plain
  7. Alternative form of 穿 (chuān).
  8. A surname​.

See also[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. river

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana かわ, rōmaji kawa, historical hiragana かは)

  1. river, stream, brook

Synonyms[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana かわ, rōmaji -kawa, historical hiragana かは)

  1. the ... river, used in named of rivers or streams

(hiragana がわ, rōmaji -gawa, historical hiragana がは)

  1. the ... river

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(cheon)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: cheon, McCune-Reischauer: ch'ŏn)
    • Name (hangeul):
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(xuyên, xiên)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.