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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 37 +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 手人 (QO), four-corner 50030, composition)

See also[edit]

  • (top simplified from 竝 and 兟)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 248, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5835
  • Dae Jaweon: page 507, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 521, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+592B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
夫-oracle.svg 夫-bronze.svg 夫-bigseal.svg 夫-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(man) +  ‎(hairpin) – a man with a hairpin in his hair.

In ancient times, when men reached the age of 20, they bound their hair with a hairpin during the Guan Li ceremony. The hairpin is the sign of “a grownup man”.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba ‎(male, father, third-person pronoun). Cognate with Tibetan ‎(pa, masculine noun suffix), Burmese ‎(hpa., masculine noun suffix). Possibly related to (OC *paʔ, *baʔ, “father”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/pio/
Shao
Rongfen
/pio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puə̆/
Li
Rong
/pio/
Wang
Li
/pĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pju ›
Old
Chinese
/*p(r)a/
English man

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3274
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pa/

Definitions[edit]

  1. male adult; man
  2. husband
      ―  zhàng  ―  husband
    /   ―    ―  married couple
  3. person
  4. manual worker
    /   ―  nóng  ―  peasant
    /   ―    ―  fisherman

Etymology 2[edit]

“That”. Schuessler (2007) connects this with Proto-Loloish *m-ba (“on the other side”), Tibetan ‎(pha, beyond, farther on, onward). Maybe related to (OC *pralʔ, “that”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/bio/
Shao
Rongfen
/bio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buə̆/
Li
Rong
/bio/
Wang
Li
/bĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ bju › ‹ bju ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]a/ /*ba/
English this, that final particle

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 3281
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ba/

Definitions[edit]

  1. A generic personal pronoun – he; she; it; they.
  2. A generic demonstrative pronoun – this; that; these; those.
  3. Sentence-initial particle which introduces a topic.
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Art of War, circa 5th century BCE
    jiàng zhě, guó zhī fǔ yě. [Pinyin]
    The general is the country's defense.
  4. Sentence-final particle, meaning “Is it not?”.
  5. Meaningless particle in the middle of a sentence.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
おっと
Grade: 4
kun'yomi
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology Scriptorium.
Particularly: “Needs splitting by reading.”

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana おっと, romaji otto, historical hiragana をつと)

  1. (humble) (one's own) husband

‎(hiragana つま, romaji tsuma)

  1. spouse, consort

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bu) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.