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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
夫-oracle.svg 夫-bronze.svg 夫-bigseal.svg 夫-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) A man with an hairpin in his hair. In ancient times, when men reached the age of 20, they bound their hair with a hairpin during the Guan Li ceremony. The hairpin is the sign of “a grownup man”.

Han character[edit]

(radical 37 +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 手人 (QO), four-corner 50030, composition)

  1. man, male adult, husband
  2. he, she, they, those, this, that

See also[edit]

  • (top simplified from 竝 and 兟)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 248, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5835
  • Dae Jaweon: page 507, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 521, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+592B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (3)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/bɨo/ /bʱi̯u/ /bio/ /bio/ /buə̆/ /bĭu/ /bio/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (1)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/pɨo/ /pi̯u/ /pio/ /pio/ /puə̆/ /pĭu/ /pio/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ pju › /*p(r)a/ man
‹ bju › /*[b]a/ this, that
‹ bju › /*ba/ final particle

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3274 0 /*pa/
3281 0 /*ba/

Noun[edit]

  1. husband
    丈夫 (zhàngfū, “husband”), 夫婦夫妇 (fūfù, “married couple”)
  2. man, male adult
  3. manual worker
    農夫农夫 (nóngfū, “peasant”), 漁夫渔夫 (yúfū, “fisherman”)

Pronoun[edit]

  1. (classical) he, she, they, those, this, that

Particle[edit]

  1. (literary) sentence-final, meaning "Is it not?" or "Isn't it?"
  2. (literary) initial particle which introduces a topic
    • Spring and Autumn Period or Warring States Period, 孙武 (Sun Wu), 孫子 (The Art of War):
      将者,国之辅也。辅周则国必强,辅隙则国必弱。
      The general is the country's defense. If the defense is solid, the country can only be strong; if it has gaps, then the country can only be weak.
Usage notes[edit]

Not used as an independent character in modern Chinese. Only found in compounds.

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 1995, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar, page 17:
  • 1995, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, Outline of Classical Chinese Grammar, page 74:
  • in CEDICT on MDBG
  • (Min Nan)Entry #795”, in 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in Chinese and Min Nan), Ministry of Education, R.O.C., 2011.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
おっと
Grade: 4
kun'yomi
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.
Particularly: “Needs splitting by reading.”

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana おっと, romaji otto, historical hiragana をつと)

  1. (humble) (one's own) husband

‎(hiragana つま, romaji tsuma)

  1. spouse, consort

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bu) (hangeul , revised bu, McCune-Reischauer pu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.