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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 37 +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 手人 (QO), four-corner 50030, composition)

See also[edit]

  • (top simplified from 竝 and 兟)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 248, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5835
  • Dae Jaweon: page 507, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 521, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+592B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
夫-oracle.svg 夫-bronze.svg 夫-bigseal.svg 夫-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(man) +  ‎(hairpin) – a man with a hairpin in his hair.

In ancient times, when men reached the age of 20, they bound their hair with a hairpin during the Guan Li ceremony. The hairpin is the sign of “a grownup man”.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *p/ba ‎(male, father, third-person pronoun). Cognate with Tibetan ‎(pa, masculine noun suffix), Burmese ‎(hpa., masculine noun suffix). Possibly related to (OC *paʔ, *baʔ, “father”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/pio/
Shao
Rongfen
/pio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puə̆/
Li
Rong
/pio/
Wang
Li
/pĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pju ›
Old
Chinese
/*p(r)a/
English man

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3274
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pa/

Definitions[edit]

  1. male adult; man
  2. husband
      ―  zhàng  ―  husband
    /   ―    ―  married couple
  3. person
  4. manual worker
    /   ―  nóng  ―  peasant
    /   ―    ―  fisherman

Etymology 2[edit]

“That”. Schuessler (2007) connects this with Proto-Loloish *m-ba (“on the other side”), Tibetan ‎(pha, beyond, farther on, onward). Maybe related to (OC *pralʔ, “that”).

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨo/
Pan
Wuyun
/bio/
Shao
Rongfen
/bio/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buə̆/
Li
Rong
/bio/
Wang
Li
/bĭu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ bju › ‹ bju ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]a/ /*ba/
English this, that final particle

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 3281
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ba/

Definitions[edit]

  1. A generic personal pronoun – he; she; it; they.
  2. A generic demonstrative pronoun – this; that; these; those.
  3. Sentence-initial particle which introduces a topic.
    [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Art of War, circa 5th century BCE
    jiàng zhě, guó zhī fǔ yě. [Pinyin]
    The general is the country's defense.
  4. Sentence-final particle, meaning “Is it not?”.
  5. Meaningless particle in the middle of a sentence.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
おっと
Grade: 4
kun'yomi
EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.
Particularly: “Needs splitting by reading.”

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana おっと, romaji otto, historical hiragana をつと)

  1. (humble) (one's own) husband

‎(hiragana つま, romaji tsuma)

  1. spouse, consort

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(bu) (hangeul , revised bu, McCune-Reischauer pu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.