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U+5937, 夷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5937

[U+5936]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5938]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 37, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 大弓 (KN) or X大弓 (XKN), four-corner 50032, composition)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 249, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5852
  • Dae Jaweon: page 509, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 527, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5937

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
夷-oracle.svg 夷-bronze.svg 夷-silk.svg 夷-seal.svg 夷-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'iːl, *lil
*l'iːl, *lil
*l'iːl, *l̥ʰiːd
*l'iːl, *lil
*l'iːl, *lil
*l̥ʰiːls, *lil
*ljilʔ, *lil
*hril
*lil
*lil
*lil
*lil
*lil
*lil
*lil
*lil, *lɯ
*lil

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (big) +  (bow).

Etymology[edit]

According to Yuè Juè Shū (越絕書), (OC *lil) is also the Yue word for "sea". Therefore, Schuessler (2007) proposes an Austroasiatic or Hmong-Mien origin. Compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *d(n)liʔ (large river, sea) (whence Khmer ទន្លេ (tŭənlei, large river) and Kuy thlèː (sea)) as well as Proto-Hmong-Mien *gle (whence Chuanqiandian Cluster Miao tl̥e (river)); the latter of which is possibly related to (OC *kʰeː) "creek, rivulet, rill".

In contrast, Ferlus (2009) reconstructs 夷's Old Chinese pronunciation as [lɨ] and connects 夷 to Proto-Tai-Kadai *k-ri: (Kra-Dai endonym) (whence Thai ไท (tai, "Tai endonym") and Hlai Hlai ("Hlai endonym")). However, Ferlus concedes that such a derivation of 夷 from *k-ri: "remains speculative, [...] not as firmly established as for Hlai and Tai/Thai".

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • thâi - vernacular;
  • î - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /i³⁵/
Harbin /i²⁴/
Tianjin /i⁴⁵/
Jinan /i⁴²/
Qingdao /i⁴²/
Zhengzhou /i⁴²/
Xi'an /i²⁴/
Xining /ji²¹³/
Yinchuan /i⁵³/
Lanzhou /i⁵³/
Ürümqi /i⁵¹/
Wuhan /i²¹³/
Chengdu /i³¹/
Guiyang /i²¹/
Kunming /i³¹/
Nanjing /i²⁴/
Hefei /zz̩⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /i¹¹/
Pingyao /i¹³/
Hohhot /i³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦi¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦi²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /i⁴⁴/
Tunxi /i⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /i¹³/
Xiangtan /i¹²/
Gan Nanchang /i⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /i¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒï¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²¹/
Nanning /ji²¹/
Hong Kong /ji²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /i³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /i²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /i⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zi³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ji/
Shao
Rongfen
/jɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ji/
Li
Rong
/i/
Wang
Li
/ji/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yij › ‹ yij ›
Old
Chinese
/*ləj/ /*ləj/
English level, peaceful foreigner (especially to the east)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14862
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*lil/

Definitions[edit]

  1. an ancient tribe in eastern China
  2. barbarian
  3. foreigners
    / [Classical Chinese]  ―  xué jì yǐ zhì [Pinyin]  ―  learn the Westerners' tricks so as to control them
  4. 23rd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "ease" (𝌜)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. ancient tribes in eastern China
  2. level (flat and low)
  3. levelled destruction

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
えびす
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi

⟨emi1si⟩ → */emʲisɨ//emisə//ebisu/

Shift from Old Japanese 蝦夷 (Emishi), modern Ezo.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana えびす, rōmaji ebisu)

  1. (historical) Synonym of 蝦夷 (Ezo): an ancient ethnic group attested in the Nihon Shoki that once lived on what is now the Kantō, Hokuriku and Tōhoku regions, likely as far as Hokkaido, possibly related to the Ainu people; dubbed as "barbarians" or "savages" by the Yamato
  2. a person living far away from the (miyako, capital), loosely translated to "bumpkin" or "hick"
    Synonym: 田舎者 (inakamono)
  3. (regional, derogatory) a barbarian, savage, especially referring to the 東夷 (azuma-ebisu, warrior from the eastern parts of Japan)
    • 1204, Akishino Gesseishū (book 1, poem 223)
      わがおもふ (ひと)だにすまばみちのくのえびす (さと)もうときものかは
      waga omou hito dani sumaba Michinoku no ebisu no sato utoki mono ka wa
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  4. (by extension, derogatory) a foreigner
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(hiragana えびす, rōmaji Ebisu)

  1. a surname

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
on’yomi

/ji//i/

From Middle Chinese (MC jiɪ), originally referred to one of the ancient tribes east of China.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , rōmaji i)

  1. those people with differing languages and/or cultures
    Synonym: 異民族 (iminzoku)
  2. a barbarian, savage
    Synonym: 野蛮人 (yabanjin)
  3. a neutral (position)
    Synonym: 無色 (mushoku)
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune–Reischauer i)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(, dai, di, , rợ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.