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Character U+3147, ㅇ
Name HANGUL LETTER IEUNG
Block Hangul Compatibility Jamo
[U+3146] [U+3148]

Cia-Cia[edit]

Preposition[edit]

‎(i)

  1. the locative particle: in; at

Korean[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]




의 ←

자 →

Syllable[edit]

‎(i)

  1. A Hangul syllabic block made up of and .

Etymology 2[edit]

(i, “teeth”).

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as  (Yale: ni).

Noun[edit]

‎(i)

  1. A tooth or teeth.
    • 이 없으면 잇몸으로 산다. — literally "without teeth, I would live with the gum."
Alternative forms[edit]
  • (ni) (archaic, now suffixal)
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
  • 덧니 (deonni, “snaggletooth/teeth”)
  • 송곳니 (songgonni, “canine tooth/teeth”)
  • 아랫니 (araenni, “lower tooth/teeth”)
  • 앞니 (amni, “incisor(s)”)
  • 윗니 (winni, “upper tooth/teeth”)
  • 어금니 (eogeumni, “molar(s)”)

Etymology 3[edit]

(i, “louse”).

First attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as  (Yale: ni).

Noun[edit]

‎(i)

  1. louse
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

First attested in the Hunmin jeongeum eonhae (訓民正音諺解本 / 훈민정음언해본), 1447, as  (Yale: i).

Determiner[edit]

‎(i)

  1. this
    • 그림을 본 적이 있다. (i geurimeul bon jeogi itda.) I have seen this picture.

Pronoun[edit]

‎(i)

  1. this (thing)
  2. this person

See also[edit]

Korean demonstratives (edit)
Determiner 어느
Pronoun Human 이이 그이 저이
이분 그분 저분
이자 그자 저자
이놈 그놈 저놈
이년 그년 저년
Object () ()
이것 그것 저것 어느 것
이거 그거 저거 어느 거
Place 여기 거기 저기 어디
이곳 그곳 저곳
Direction 이쪽 그쪽 저쪽 어느 쪽
Time 이때 그때 접때
Verb 이러다 그러다 저러다 어쩌다
Adjective 이렇다 그렇다 저렇다 어떻다
이러하다 그러하다 저러하다 어떠하다
Adverb 이리 그리 저리 어찌
이렇게 그렇게 저렇게 어떻게
이만큼 그만큼 저만큼

Etymology 5[edit]

Of native Korean origin. Possibly cognate with Old Japanese ‎(i, emphatic nominative particle).

Particle[edit]

‎(i)

  1. A particle marking a grammatical subject ending with a consonant.
    • 치킨 있다. (I chikini masi itda., “This chicken is delicious.”)
  2. A particle marking a grammatical complement ending with a consonant, before 되다 (doeda, “to become”) and 아니다 (anida, “(to be) not”).
    An adverbial particle 으로/ (euro/ro) can replace the complement marker / (i/ga) when the verb is 되다 (doeda, “to become”).
    • 얼음 었다. (Muri eoreumi doeeotda., “Water became ice.”)
      얼음으로 었다. (Muri eoreumeuro doeeotda., “Water became ice.”)
    • 사람 아니다. (Geuneun sarami anida., “He is not a human.”)

‎(i)

  1. A semantic particle which adheres to and puts emphasis on a noun or an adverb.
Synonyms[edit]
  • ‎(ga) (ga) (marks a grammatical subject ending with a vowel)
See also[edit]
  • ‎(eun) (eun) (marks a topic word or phrase ending with a consonant)
  • ‎(neun) (neun) (marks a topic word or phrase ending with a vowel)
  • ‎(eul) (eul) (marks a direct object ending with a consonant)
  • ‎(reul) (reul) (marks a direct object ending with a vowel)
  • (i); emphatic nominative marker in Old Japanese

Etymology 6[edit]

Of native Korean origin.

Suffix[edit]

‎(i)

  1. a suffix deriving a passive verb.
    • 저는 희망봅니다. (Jeoneun huimang-eul bomnida., “I see hope.”) → 저에게 희망니다. (Jeo-ege huimang-i boimnida., “Hope is seen to me.”)

‎(i)

  1. a suffix deriving a causative verb.
Synonyms[edit]
  • - (hi)/ (ri)/ (gi)- : suffixes deriving passive verbs.
  • - (hi)/ (ri)/ (gi)/ (u)/ (gu)/ (chu)- : suffixes deriving causative verbs.

Etymology 7[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as  (Yale: i).

Noun[edit]

‎(i)

  1. (dependent) a person.

Etymology 8[edit]

Of native Korean origin.

Suffix[edit]

‎(i)

  1. (after a stem of a verb or an adjective) a suffix deriving a noun.
    • 길다 (gilda, “long”) + (i) → 길이 (giri, “length”)
    • 먹다 (meokda, “to eat”) + (i) → 먹이 (meogi, “feed”)
  2. (in the form of a noun + a stem of a verb + suffix 이) a suffix deriving a noun, adding a meaning of a person, an item, or an event. -er.
    • (ot, “clothing”) + 걸다 (geolda, “to hang”) + (i) → 옷걸이 (otgeori, “a hanger”)
    • 가슴 (gaseum, “chest, heart”) + 앓다 (alta, “to suffer”) + (i) → 가슴앓이 (gaseumari, “heartburn”)
  3. a suffix deriving a noun, adding a meaning of a person or an item. -er.

Etymology 9[edit]

Of native Korean origin.

Suffix[edit]

‎(i)

  1. (after a stem of an adjective) a suffix deriving an adverb. -ly.
    • 다르다 (dareuda, “different”) + (i) → 달리 (dalli, “unlike; differently”)
    • 슬프다 (seulpeuda, “sad”) + (i) → 슬피 (seulpi, “sadly”)
  2. (after repeating a single-syllable noun) a suffix deriving an adverb.
    • (dal, “a month”) ×2 + (i) → 다달이 (dadari, “month by month”)
    • (, gan, “interval”) ×2 + (i) → 간간이 (gan-gani, “at times”)

Usage notes[edit]

The suffix -i is used for adjectives not ending in -hada, and the suffix -hi is implemented for that case. For example, 많다 (manta, “many”) turns into 많이 (mani, “a lot”) whereas 깔끔하다 (kkalkkeumhada, “neat”) becomes 깔끔히 (kkalkkeumhi, “neatly”). However, if -hada is suffixed after consonants k and s, -i is sometimes used rather than -hi, as in 깊숙이 (gipsugi, “deeply”) from 깊숙하다 (gipsukhada, “deep”) and 깨끗이 (kkaekkeusi, “cleanly”) from 깨끗하다 (kkaekkeuthada, “clean”), while many adjectives like 솔직하다 (soljikhada, “frank”) still take -hi. Whether to use -i or -hi depends on its pronunciation, which is very confusing even to natives.[1]

The conjugation for this suffix is similar to the infinite form, but not the same. Especially, the p-irregular adjectives (ㅂ 불규칙 용언) take 이 (i) not 위 (wi); for instance, 가깝다 (gakkapda, “near”) → 가까이 (gakkai, “nearly”).

Also, note that only a limited number of adverbs are frequently used which are formed by affixing -i or -hi.

See also[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.korean.go.kr/nkview/nknews/200404/69_3.html

Etymology 10[edit]

Of native Korean origin.

Suffix[edit]

‎(i)

  1. (after the stem of the sequential form of an adjective) one of the familiar style declarative endings.

Etymology 11[edit]

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ‎(ri) (ri) (North Korean) (for many but not all characters)

Noun[edit]

‎(i)

  1. (philosophy) (cosmic) reason

Numeral[edit]

‎(i) ‎(hanja , )

  1. (cardinal) two
Usage notes[edit]
  • Used primarily with Sino-Korean count words, or in reading numbers literally.

Proper noun[edit]

‎(I) ‎(hanja )

  1. The second most common Korean surname, South Korean spelling.
Usage notes[edit]

Syllable[edit]

(i)

  1. : plum tree
    (eumhun reading: 오얏나무 이 ‎(oyannamu i))
  2. : two
    (eumhun reading: 두 이 ‎(du i))
  3. : ruling
    (eumhun reading: 다스릴 이 ‎(daseuril i))
  4. : village
    (eumhun reading: 마을 이 ‎(ma-eul i))
  5. : beneficial
    (eumhun reading: 이로울 이 ‎(iroul i))
  6. : 써
  7. : other
    (eumhun reading: 다를 이 ‎(dareul i))
  8. : moving
    (eumhun reading: 옮길 이 ‎(omgil i))
  9. : that
    (eumhun reading: 저 이 ‎(jeo i))
  10. : leaving
    (eumhun reading: 떠날 이 ‎(tteonal i))
  11. : ear
    (eumhun reading: 귀 이 ‎(gwi i))
  12. : pear tree
    (eumhun reading: 배나무 이 ‎(baenamu i))
  13. : petty official
    (eumhun reading: 아전 이 ‎(ajeon i))
  14. : continuing speech
    (eumhun reading: 말이을 이 ‎(marieul i))
  15. : easy
    (eumhun reading: 쉬울 이 ‎(swiul i))
  16. : already
    (eumhun reading: 이미 이 ‎(imi i))
  17. : barbarian
    (eumhun reading: 오랑캐 이 ‎(orangkae i))
  18. : two
    (eumhun reading: 두 이 ‎(du i))
  19. :
  20. :
  21. :
  22. :
  23. :
  24. :
  25. :
  26. :
  27. :
  28. :
  29. :
  30. :
  31. :
  32. :
  33. :
  34. :
  35. :
  36. :
  37. :
Synonyms[edit]

(two): (dul) (native Korean)

Coordinate terms[edit]

(reason): (, gi)