하다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄒᆞ다 (hota).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key)[ha̠da̠]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? hada
Revised Romanization (translit.)? hada
McCune–Reischauer? hada
Yale Romanization? hata
Audio
(file)

Verb[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive or 하여, sequential 하니)

  1. 하다
    1. to do
      하루 하다
      haru bunui ireul hada
      to do a full day of work
      제가 수 있어요.
      Jega hal su isseoyo.
      I can do it.
    2. to make; to arrange; to cook
      내일 미리 하다
      naeil meogeul babeul miri hada
      to cook rice ahead for tomorrow
    3. to express feeling or attitude
      어두 얼굴하다
      eoduun eolgureul hada
      to wear a gloomy face
    4. to take; to eat; to drink
      좀처럼 하지 않다
      sureul jomcheoreom haji anta
      to rarely drink alcohol
    5. to wear
      화려귀걸이하고 나가다
      hwaryeohan gwigeorireul hago nagada
      to go out wearing a fancy earring
    6. to work in/as; to operate
      조그만 가게하다
      jogeuman otgagereul hada
      to run a small clothing store
    7. to play a role; to take a responsibility for
      학생 회장하다
      haksaeng hoejang-eul hada
      to be the student body president
    8. to get a result
      에서 일등하다
      baneseo ildeung-eul hada
      to be at top of one's class
    9. to buy; to arrange
      휴대폰하나 하다
      hyudaeponeul hana hada
      to buy a cell phone
    10. to reach a certain price
      이나 한다
      jip han chaee sip eogina handa
      That house is as much as a billion won.
    11. (in the form of '…값을 하다') to meet an expectation
      밥값야지.
      Bapgapseun haeyaji.
      I will be worthy of food. (I will work.)
    12. (in the form of 'A B 할 것 없이') to say separately
      어른 아이 모두 들떠 있다.
      Eoreun ai hal geot eopsi modu deultteo itda.
      Everyone is excited regardless of age.
  2. 하다
    1. to handle; to dispose
      사기범어떻게 할까?
      I sagibeomeul eotteoke halkkayo?
      What to do with this swindler?
  3. 으로 하다
    1. to make become; to cause to become
      여자아내 하다
      yeojareul anaero hada
      to make a woman become one's wife
    2. to head; to face
      머리북쪽으로 하고 자다
      meorireul bukjjogeuro hago jada
      to sleep with the head northward.
    3. to decide
      내일 다시 만나기하다
      naeil dasi mannagiro hada
      to decide to meet again tomorrow
  4. 하다
    1. to call; to name
      을 '동의어'라고 한다.
      Dareun malgwa tteusi gateun mareul dong-uieo rago handa.
      We call a word which means the same with another word a 'synonym'.
  5. 으로 하다
    1. (in the form of '해서' or '하여') to be caused by
      로 하여 그는 중징계았다.
      I illo hayeo geuneun jungjinggyereul badatda.
      Due to this incident, he got heavily disciplined.
    2. (in the form of '해서' or '하여') to go via
      부산으로 해서 일본 생각이다.
      Busaneuro haeseo ilbone gal saenggagida.
      I'm going to visit Japan via Busan.
  6. See below:
    1. (in the form of '… 해서') to reach a certain time
      12 .
      12si banjjeum haeseo galge.
      I'll be there around 12:30.
    2. (in the form of '… 하면') to make something a topic
      맥주 역시 독일이다.
      Maekju hamyeon yeoksi dogirida.
      To say about beer, Germany is the best.
  7. 하다
    1. to say, to talk
      잠깐 하다
      jamkkan swijago hada
      to say "Let's take a rest a bit!"
    2. (in the form of '하는', often '—고 하는' being shorten to '—하는' or '—는') to be that
      잠깐 소리에 나는 그녀를 돌아봤다.
      Jamkkan swijaneun sorie naneun geunyeoreul dorabwatda.
      Hearing a voice saying "Let's take a rest a bit!", I looked back to her.
  8. Other uses:
    1. (after enumerating verbs) to do, actually not doing either of them well
      다가 다가 하다
      anjatdaga seotdaga hada
      to alternate between sitting down and standing up
    2. (after an indirect question) to think
      그가 무얼 는가더니 만화이었다.
      Geuga mueol boneun-ga haetdeoni manhwachaegieotda.
      I wondered what he was reading to find it was a comic.
    3. (in the form of '— 하다') to say
    4. (in the form of '—다 하면') to do, emphasizing inevitability
      다 하 명중이다.
      Sswatda hamyeon myeongjung-ida.
      Every time he shoots, it hits the mark.
    5. (after a word descripting sound) to sound
    6. (after a quotation not followed by any marker) to say
      그는 "그만!" 하고 외쳤다.
      Geuneun geuman! Hago oechyeotda.
      "Stop!", he yelled.
    7. (in front of a sentence, in the form of '하나', '하니', '하면', '하여', ' 한데', and '해서') 'but', 'so', 'then', 'thus', 'by the way', and 'therefore' respectively.
  9. (auxiliary)
    1. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '—게 하다') to make sb/sth do
      아이에게 숙제를 하게 하다
      aiege sukjereul hage hada
      to have a child do the homework
        • cf.
          아이숙제를 한.
          Aiga sukjereul handa.
          A child does the homework.
      그릇을 [[깨끗하다|깨끗하]]게 하다
      geureuseul kkaekkeuthage hada
      to make a dish clean
        • cf.
          그릇이 [[깨끗하다|깨끗하다]].
          Geureusi kkaekkeuthada.
          A dish is clean.
    2. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '—었으면 하다') to wish that
      나는 여름 내렸으면.
      Naneun yeoreume biga deol naeryeosseumyeon handa.
      I wish that it rained less in summer.
    3. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '—어야 하다') to have to do
      모든 재료언제나 신선해야 한.
      Modeun jaeryoneun eonjena sinseonhaeya handa.
      All ingredients should always be fresh.
      차를 수리받아야 합니다.
      Chareul suribadaya hamnida.
      I need to get my car repaired.
      정오 전에 체크아웃 해야 합니다.
      Jeong-o jeone chekeuaut haeya hamnida.
      I'll have to check out before noon.
    4. (after verb, in the form of '—으() 하다' or '—고자 하다') to intend to
      이번 주말에는 영화려고.
      Ibeon jumareneun yeonghwareul boryeogo handa.
      I'm going to watch a movie this weekend.
    5. (in the form of "verb stem + '—' + semantic marker + ' 하다') to do, with an emphasis
      그는 .
      Geuneun jagiman handa.
      He only sleeps.
    6. (after verb, in the form of '—고 하다') to do, as a cause
      고 해 일찍 다.
      Nundo ogo haeseo iljjik watda.
      'Cause it snows, so I came early.
    7. (after verb, in the form of '—고는 하다' or '—곤 하다') used to do
      시골 에, 나는 도랑따라 곤 했다.
      Sigore sal jeoge, naneun dorang-eul ttara geotgon haetda.
      When I lived in countryside, I used to walk along a ditch.
    8. (after adjective, in the form of '—어하다') to feel that sb/sth is
      그는 손녀몹시 귀여워했다.
      Geuneun sonnyeoreul mopsi gwiyeowohaetda.
      He loved his granddaughter very much.

Usage notes[edit]

하다 (hada) is a productive suffix for creating verbs and adjectives from Korean nouns. For example,

(mal, “word, language”) → 말하다 (malhada, “to talk”)
번역 (beonyeok, “translation”) → 번역하다 (beonyeokhada, “to translate”)
사랑 (sarang, “love”) → 사랑하다 (saranghada, “to love”)

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • 행하다 (haenghada, “to do”)
  • 삼다 (samda, “to make; to cause to become”)
  • 마시다 (masida, “to take; to eat; to drink”)

Adjective[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive or 하여, sequential 하니)

  1. (in the form of "adjective stem + '—기' + semantic marker + ' 하다') to be, with an emphasis
  2. (after adjective, in the form of '—고 하다') to be, as a cause

Middle Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Hunmin jeongeum eonhae (訓民正音諺解本 / 훈민정음언해본), 1447, as Middle Korean 하다 (hata). Suspected to have same root with 크다 (keuda, “big”)

Adjective[edit]

하다 (transliteration needed)

  1. many; big
    • Hunminjeongeum Eonhaebon:
      ᄆᆞᄎᆞᆷ내 제 ᄠᅳ들 시러 펴디 몯ᄒᆞᇙ 노미 하니라
      mochomnay ce ptutul sile pyedi mwotholq nwomi hanila.
      ...many of them in the end cannot state their concerns.