하다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄒᆞ다 (hota).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key)[ha̠da̠]
  • Phonetic Hangul[]
Revised Romanization? hada
Revised Romanization (translit.)? hada
McCune–Reischauer? hada
Yale Romanization? hata
Audio
(file)

Verb[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive or 하여, sequential 하니)

  1. 하다
    1. to do
    2. to make; to arrange; to cook
    3. to express feeling or attitude
    4. to take; to eat; to drink
      • 좀처럼 하지 않다
        sureul jomcheoreom haji anta
        to rarely drink alcohol
    5. to wear
    6. to work in/as; to operate
    7. to play a role; to take a responsibility for
      • 학생 회장하다
        haksaeng hoejang-eul hada
        to be the student body president
    8. to get a result
      • 에서 일등하다
        baneseo ildeung-eul hada
        to be at top of one's class
    9. to buy; to arrange
    10. to reach a certain price
      • 이나 한다
        jip han chaee sip eogina handa
        That house is as much as a billion won.
    11. (in the form of '…값을 하다') to meet an expectation
      • 밥값야지.
        Bapgapseun haeyaji.
        I will be worthy of food. (I will work.)
    12. (in the form of 'A B 할 것 없이') to say separately
  2. 하다
    1. to handle; to dispose
  3. 으로 하다
    1. to make become; to cause to become
      • 여자아내 하다
        yeojareul anaero hada
        to make a woman become one's wife
    2. to head; to face
      • 머리북쪽으로 하고 자다
        meorireul bukjjogeuro hago jada
        to sleep with the head northward.
    3. to decide
  4. 하다
    1. to call; to name
      • 을 '동의어'라고 한다.
        Dareun malgwa tteusi gateun mareul dong-uieo rago handa.
        We call a word which means the same with another word a 'synonym'.
  5. 으로 하다
    1. (in the form of '해서' or '하여') to be caused by
      • 로 하여 그는 중징계았다.
        I illo hayeo geuneun jungjinggyereul badatda.
        Due to this incident, he got heavily disciplined.
    2. (in the form of '해서' or '하여') to go via
      • 부산으로 해서 일본 생각이다.
        Busaneuro haeseo ilbone gal saenggagida.
        I'm going to visit Japan via Busan.
  6. See below:
    1. (in the form of '… 해서') to reach a certain time
    2. (in the form of '… 하면') to make something a topic
      • 맥주 역시 독일이다.
        Maekju hamyeon yeoksi dogirida.
        To say about beer, Germany is the best.
  7. 하다
    1. to say, to talk
      • 잠깐 하다
        jamkkan swijago hada
        to say "Let's take a rest a bit!"
    2. (in the form of '하는', often '—고 하는' being shorten to '—하는' or '—는') to be that
      • 잠깐 소리에 나는 그녀를 돌아봤다.
        Jamkkan swijaneun sorie naneun geunyeoreul dorabwatda.
        Hearing a voice saying "Let's take a rest a bit!", I looked back to her.
  8. Other uses:
    1. (after enumerating verbs) to do, actually not doing either of them well
    2. (after an indirect question) to think
      • 그가 무얼 는가더니 만화이었다.
        Geuga mueol boneun-ga haetdeoni manhwachaegieotda.
        I wondered what he was reading to find it was a comic.
    3. (in the form of '— 하다') to say
    4. (in the form of '—다 하면') to do, emphasizing inevitability
      • 다 하 명중이다.
        Sswatda hamyeon myeongjung-ida.
        Every time he shoots, it hits the mark.
    5. (after a word descripting sound) to sound
    6. (after a quotation not followed by any marker) to say
      • 그는 "그만!" 하고 외쳤다.
        Geuneun geuman! Hago oechyeotda.
        "Stop!", he yelled.
    7. (in front of a sentence, in the form of '하나', '하니', '하면', '하여', ' 한데', and '해서') 'but', 'so', 'then', 'thus', 'by the way', and 'therefore' respectively.
  9. (auxiliary)
    1. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '—게 하다') to make sb/sth do
      • 아이에게 숙제를 하게 하다
        aiege sukjereul hage hada
        to have a child do the homework
        • cf.
          아이숙제를 한.
          Aiga sukjereul handa.
          A child does the homework.
      • 그릇을 [[깨끗하다|깨끗하]]게 하다
        geureuseul kkaekkeuthage hada
        to make a dish clean
        • cf.
          그릇이 [[깨끗하다|깨끗하다]].
          Geureusi kkaekkeuthada.
          A dish is clean.
    2. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '—었으면 하다') to wish that
      • 나는 여름 내렸으면.
        Naneun yeoreume biga deol naeryeosseumyeon handa.
        I wish that it rained less in summer.
    3. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '—어야 하다') to have to do
      모든 재료언제나 신선해야 한.
      Modeun jaeryoneun eonjena sinseonhaeya handa.
      All ingredients should always be fresh.
      차를 수리받아야 합니다.
      Chareul suribadaya hamnida.
      I need to get my car repaired.
      정오 전에 체크아웃 해야 합니다.
      Jeong-o jeone chekeuaut haeya hamnida.
      I'll have to check out before noon.
    4. (after verb, in the form of '—으() 하다' or '—고자 하다') to intend to
    5. (in the form of "verb stem + '—' + semantic marker + ' 하다') to do, with an emphasis
      • 그는 .
        Geuneun jagiman handa.
        He only sleeps.
    6. (after verb, in the form of '—고 하다') to do, as a cause
    7. (after verb, in the form of '—고는 하다' or '—곤 하다') used to do
      • 시골 에, 나는 도랑따라 곤 했다.
        Sigore sal jeoge, naneun dorang-eul ttara geotgon haetda.
        When I lived in countryside, I used to walk along a ditch.
    8. (after adjective, in the form of '—어하다') to feel that sb/sth is
      • 그는 손녀몹시 귀여워했다.
        Geuneun sonnyeoreul mopsi gwiyeowohaetda.
        He loved his granddaughter very much.

Usage notes[edit]

하다 (hada) is a productive suffix for creating verbs and adjectives from Korean nouns. For example,

(mal, “word, language”) → 말하다 (malhada, “to talk”)
번역 (beonyeok, “translation”) → 번역하다 (beonyeokhada, “to translate”)
사랑 (sarang, “love”) → 사랑하다 (saranghada, “to love”)

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • 행하다 (haenghada, “to do”)
  • 삼다 (samda, “to make; to cause to become”)
  • 마시다 (masida, “to take; to eat; to drink”)

Adjective[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive or 하여, sequential 하니)

  1. (in the form of "adjective stem + '—기' + semantic marker + ' 하다') to be, with an emphasis
  2. (after adjective, in the form of '—고 하다') to be, as a cause

Middle Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Hunmin jeongeum eonhae (訓民正音諺解本 / 훈민정음언해본), 1447, as Middle Korean 하다 (hata). Suspected to have same root with 크다 (keuda, “big”)

Adjective[edit]

하다 (transliteration needed)

  1. many; big
    • Hunminjeongeum Eonhaebon:
      ᄆᆞᄎᆞᆷ내 제 ᄠᅳ들 시러 펴디 몯ᄒᆞᇙ 노미 하니라
      mochomnay ce ptutul sile pyedi mwotholq nwomi hanila.
      ...many of them in the end cannot state their concerns.