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U+AC70, 거
Composition: +
Dubeolsik input:r-j

Hangul Syllables


걔 ←→ 게



Revised Romanization?geo
Revised Romanization (translit.)?geo
Yale Romanization?ke

Etymology 1[edit]

Dependent noun[edit]


  1. Colloquially dominant form of (geot, thing).

Etymology 2[edit]



  1. Contraction of 그것 (geugeot, that, that thing).

Etymology 3[edit]



  1. Contraction of 거기 (geogi, there).

Etymology 4[edit]

Reading of various Chinese characters.



Extended content
  1. : vehicle
    (eumhun reading: 수레 (sure geo))
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌ))
  2. : going
    (eumhun reading: (gal geo))
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɨʌX, kʰɨʌH))
  3. : living
    (eumhun reading: (sal geo))
    (MC reading: (MC kɨ, kɨʌ))
  4. : lifting
    (eumhun reading: (deul geo))
    (MC reading: (MC jɨʌ))
  5. : bigness
    (eumhun reading: (keul geo))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  6. : dependence, basis
    (eumhun reading: 의지할 (uijihal geo))
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌH))
  7. : falling
    (eumhun reading: 떨어질 (tteoreojil geo))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  8. : blockage
    (eumhun reading: 막을 (mageul geo))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  9. : ditch
    (eumhun reading: 도랑 (dorang geo))
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌ))
  10. :
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɨɑ))
  11. :
    (MC reading: )
  12. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌH))
  13. :
    (MC reading: )
  14. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌH))
  15. :
    (MC reading: )
  16. :
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɨɑ, kʰɨʌH, kʰɨɐp̚))
  17. :
    (MC reading: )
  18. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌ))
  19. :
    (MC reading: )
  20. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  21. :
    (MC reading: )
  22. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  23. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌX))
  24. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌ))
  25. :
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɨʌ, kʰɨʌH, kʰɨɐp̚))
  26. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌ, ɡɨʌ))
  27. :
    (MC reading: )
  28. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  29. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌX))
  30. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌ))
  31. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌ, ɡɨo))
  32. :
    (MC reading: (MC kʰɨʌ))
  33. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌ))
  34. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX, ɡɨʌH))
  35. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  36. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌH))
  37. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌH))
  38. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌ, ɡɨʌH, ɡɨɐk̚))
  39. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))
  40. :
    (MC reading: (MC kɨʌH))
  41. :
    (MC reading: (MC ɡɨʌX))

Middle Korean[edit]


From Old Korean (*-ke).

Alternative forms[edit]




  1. A very common verbal suffix in fifteenth-century Middle Korean. The meaning of this term is uncertain. There are two main competing hypotheses, and it is also possible that both hypotheses were simultaneously true in some capacity:
    1. A perfective aspect marker, regarding the action of the verb as having completed (either from the perspective of the present, or from some future vantage point). An important argument is that it is commonly used to translate Mandarin (le); another is that it fits the same paradigmal slot as the imperfective 더〮 (-té).
    2. A confirmative mood marker, emphasizing the speaker's subjective certitude that the action of the verb must have taken (or must take) place.

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is one of three Middle Korean suffixes which do not have a fixed underlying pitch, but assume the pitch of the preceding syllable. The two others are ᄂᆞ (-no) and the epenthetic vowel of 시〮 (-sí).

(-ke) is most often, but not exclusively, found with adjectives, intransitive verbs, and the copula. Transitive verbs usually take 아〮 () or 어〮 () depending on vowel harmony, and this appears to have had largely the same meaning as (-ke). The most common explanation is that they were allomorphs of the same suffix, with the choice between the two largely determined by transitivity. However, others have suggested that the two suffixes had different meanings, with 아〮 ()/어〮 () having a stronger perfective sense.

Related terms[edit]

These are believed to have been derived from the suffix, but it is not clear to what extent Middle Korean speakers still saw them as multiple suffixes rather than as single fully grammaticalized suffixes.

See also[edit]

Middle Korean verbal paradigm
Verb stem Slot 1
Object honorific
Slot 2
Past-related TAM
Slot 3
Subject honorific
Slot 4
Present tense
Slot 5
Slot 6
ᅀᆞᇦ (-zoW) (-te, imperfective)
아/어 (-a/-e, perfective)
(-ke, perfective)
(-si)1 ᄂᆞ (-no) 오/우 (-wo/-wu) (-li)1
Slot 7
(Slot 8)
(Slot 9)
Slot 10
Slot 11
Addressee honorific
Slot 12
Sentence ender
애/에 (-ay/-ey)
(-te) 오/우 (-wo/-wu) (-ni)1 ᅌᅵ (-ngi, very deferential)1
(-ng, deferential)
See Template:okm-sentence enders
기르ᅀᆞᄫᆞ시니ᅌᅵ다 (kilu-zoW-o-si-ni-ngi-ta, [the honored one] [indeed] brought up [the honored thing], [o honored one]., 月印釋譜 10:19)
주그리로소ᅌᅵ다 (cwuk-u-li-lwo[two]-s-wo-ngi-ta, [I] shall die, [o honored one]!, 月印釋譜 21:22)
살어리랏다 (sal-Ge[ke]-li-las-ta, [I feel that] I would be living!, 靑山別曲)
ᄒᆞ더시라 (ho-te-si-la, [the honored one] was doing)
ᄒᆞ시리라 (ho-si-li-la, [the honored one] shall do)
ᄒᆞ시리러라 (ho-si-li-le[te]-la, [the honored one] would be doing)
1 Preceded by a minimal vowel interfix, (-o-) or (-u-), after a consonant-final suffix
2 These suffixes are complex. Several of them fuse non-exclamatory suffixes, causing problems in the paradigm if they are broken down into their bare components. For instance, the easily segmentable (sy-as, subject honorific + exclamatory) behaves as a single unit with regards to suffixing order: ᄒᆞ리샷다 (ho-li-syas-ta, [the honored one] shall do!) rather than the expected *ᄒᆞ시릿다 (*ho-si-li-s-ta). Similarly, while the retrospective and confirmative suffixes share a slot and are hence mutually exclusive, the exclamatory version of the former has been attested as co-occurring with the latter. In the context of this table, it is therefore more appropriate to consider such fused suffixes as single exclamatory morphemes that also carry other information.
3 Takes this position if Slot 6 (prospective) is filled, or after the exclamatory suffix (-twos).
4 Unusual position, primarily taken when Slot 7 (exclamatory) is filled.
The list is not exhaustive. Many suffixes are mutually exclusive.


  • 유필재 (Yoo Pil-jae) (2011) , “후기중세국어 '거, 아/어'계 어미의 성조와 형태 분석 [Analysis of pitch and morphology in Late Middle Korean -ke, -a/e-class suffixes]”, in Jindan hakbo, volume 111, pages 243—262
  • 이병기 (Yi Byeong-gi) (2014) , “선어말어미 {-거-}의 연구 성과와 쟁점 [Findings and key topics in the study of the verb-internal suffix -ke-]”, in Gugeosa yeon-gu, volume 19, pages 31—63