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U+B9D0, 말
HANGUL SYLLABLE MAL
Composition: + +
Dubeolsik input:a-k-f

[U+B9CF]
Hangul Syllables
[U+B9D1]




리 ←→ 매

Jeju[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /ma̠ɭ/

Noun[edit]

(mal)

  1. word
  2. speech
  3. language

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • ” in Andrew Cheng; K. David Harrison, Jeju-eo Talking Dictionary, Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages, 2014.
  • ” in Jeju's culture and language, Digital museum.

Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean 말〯 (Yale: mǎl). The rising pitch implies an earlier bisyllabic origin.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ma̠(ː)ɭ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, the great majority of speakers (in both Koreas) no longer distinguish vowel length.
Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?māl
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / 말 / 말까지

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes low pitch, and heightens the pitch of two subsequent suffixed syllables.

Noun[edit]

(mal)

  1. speech
    주의하여 들어.
    Nae mareul juuihayeo deureobwa.
    Listen to me carefully.
  2. (colloquial) language
    일본 어디 배웠어?
    Ilbon mareul eodiseo baewosseo?
    Where did you learn Japanese?
    Synonym: (formal) 어(語) (eo)
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

First attested in the Yongbi eocheonga (龍飛御天歌 / 용비어천가), 1447, as Middle Korean ᄆᆞᆯ (Yale: mòl).

Similar words are found across Eurasia. Compare Manchu ᠮᠣᡵᡳᠨ (morin, horse), Mongolian морь (mori, horse), Nivkh мурӈ (murŋ, horse), Old Chinese (*mraːʔ, horse), Japanese (うま) (uma, horse), and Proto-Indo-European *márkos (horse); see the last link for more.

For the prefix, compare Chinese (, “horse; big, great”), from which it is perhaps calqued.

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: 의 / 에 / 말

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word takes low pitch only before consonant-initial multisyllabic suffixes.

Noun[edit]

(mal) (counter 마리)

  1. horse
  2. playing piece (in games)
  3. sawhorse
Derived terms[edit]

Prefix[edit]

말— (mal-)

  1. (now unproductive) great; big
    malbeolgreat bee; wasp
    개미malgaemiking ant
    잠자리maljamjaritype of dragonfly

Etymology 3[edit]

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as Middle Korean 말〮 (Yale: mál).

Native Korean related to Sino-Korean . Auxiliary units of quantification of (, doe). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal
  • South Gyeongsang (Busan) pitch accent: / /

    Syllables in red take high pitch. This word always takes high pitch and also heightens the next suffixed syllable.

Noun[edit]

(mal)

  1. measure (containing about 18 liters or 10 doe ( (doe))
  2. a unit of measure (about 18 liters)
See also[edit]
  • (doe): 1/10 mal
  • (, jak): 1/1000 mal
  • (hop): 1/100 mal

Etymology 4[edit]

Short form of 말뚝 (malttuk).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal

Noun[edit]

(mal)

  1. wooden pile; stake

Etymology 5[edit]

First attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean ᄆᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: mól).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal

Noun[edit]

(mal)

  1. an alga or other waterborne cryptogam
  2. seaweed, specifically Potamogeton oxyphyllus.
See also[edit]

Etymology 6[edit]

Sino-Korean word from (end).

Pronunciation[edit]

Romanizations
Revised Romanization?mal
Revised Romanization (translit.)?mal
McCune–Reischauer?mal
Yale Romanization?mal

Noun[edit]

(mal) (hanja )

  1. end (of a period); late
    조선시대
    joseonsidae mal
    Late Joseon period
    Antonym: 초(初) (cho, beginning)
  2. (baseball) bottom (of an inning)
    9
    guhoe mal
    The bottom of the ninth inning
    Coordinate term: 초(初) (cho, top (of an inning))
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Korean reading of various Chinese characters.

Syllable[edit]

(mal)

Extended content
  1. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  2. :
    (MC reading: )
  3. : end; tip
    (eumhun reading: (kkeut mal)))
  4. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  5. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  6. :
    (MC reading: (MC mʉɐt̚))
  7. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  8. :
    (MC reading: (MC mˠat̚))
  9. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  10. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  11. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  12. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  13. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  14. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))
  15. :
    (MC reading: (MC -))
  16. :
    (MC reading: (MC muɑt̚))

References[edit]

  • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin-guk daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, inmyeong-yonghanjapyo), page 15. [1]
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Middle Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “First attestation? Any Old Korean forms known?”)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

말〯 (mǎl)

  1. word, speech, language
Descendants[edit]
  • Korean: (mal)

Etymology 2[edit]

Possibly cognate with Japanese (masu), a similar unit of measure.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

말〮 (mál)

  1. measure (containing about 18 liters or 10 doe ( (doe))
  2. a unit of measure (about 18 liters)
Descendants[edit]
  • Korean: (mal)