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See also:
U+8A9E, 語
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A9E

[U+8A9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A9F]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
14 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 149, +7, 14 strokes, cangjie input 卜口一一口 (YRMMR), four-corner 01661, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1163, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35533
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1628, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3974, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8A9E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
語-bronze-spring.svg 語-bronze-warring.svg 語-silk.svg 語-slip.svg 語-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋaʔ, *ŋas): semantic + phonetic (OC *ŋraː, *ŋaː).

Etymology[edit]

Compare Tibetan ངག (ngag, speech).

According to Schuessler (2007), (OC *ŋan, “to speak; speech; talk”) is (OC *ŋaʔ) with a nominal n-suffix.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • General Taiwanese:
    • gí/gú - vernacular;
    • gú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ(r)aʔ/
    English speak

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13159
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋaʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to speak; to say
    2. (of an animal) to chirp; to hoot
    3. speech; language
    4. (linguistics) spoken language (contrary to written language )
    5. expression; words
    6. saying; proverb; set phrase
    7. movement or signal which transmits information
    8. chirping; tweet

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨʌH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɔH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɔH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɔH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭoH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯woH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjoH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ(r)aʔ-s/
    English tell

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13165
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋas/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to tell; to inform

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (go)
    • Korean: (, eo)
    • Vietnamese: ngữ ()

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    goon
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨʌX).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (go

    1. (linguistics) a word, term
      Synonyms: 言葉 (kotoba), 単語 (tango)
    2. a proverb
      Synonyms: (kotowaza), 成句 (seiku)

    Derived terms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-go

    1. language of, -ese, -ish
      ()(ほん)()nihongoJapanese
      (えい)()eigoEnglish
      スペイン()supeingoSpanish

    Derived terms[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    () (go

    1. talk, speak
    2. word, language, term
    3. Short for 物語 (monogatari): story, tale, narrative

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨʌX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅥᆼ〯 (Yale: ngě)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 말〯ᄉᆞᆷ〮 (Yale: mǎlsóm) 어〯 (Yale: ě)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ʌ̹(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 말씀 (malsseum eo))

    1. Hanja form? of (language of; -ese; -ish).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: ngữ[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: ngỡ[1][2][3][4], ngửa[1][2][3][4], ngữ[1][2][3], ngứa[1][3], ngợ[3][4], gỡ[1]

    1. Hán tự form of ngữ (language).
    2. Nôm form of ngỡ (to think that).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]